Claudius Ptolemy( Outstanding GrecoEgyptian astronomer, astrologer, mathematician, geographer and optician)
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Biography Claudius Ptolemy


Ptolemy, probably comes from Ptolemiady in Middle Egypt. He worked in Alexandria, Egypt, where astronomical observations were conducted in 125  141 years. Proceedings of Ptolemy had a tremendous influence on all subsequent astronomy and astrology. He summarized the early works of Greekspeaking astronomers in the Great mathematical astronomy in the construction of 13 books "(Greek. "Megale syntaxis" or "Megiste syntaxis"  "Great building"). This work, known as the "Almagest" (medieval distortion of the Greek name), served as the foundation of astronomy almost fifteen hundred years. Ptolemaic astronomy was used to replace it with the world system of Copernicus. . In the selection of hypotheses to explain the phenomena of Ptolemy adhered to the principle of simplicity, when the simplest hypothesis was insufficient, argued that "we must take other, more suitable" . Thus, an important shift in astronomical science has made its rejection of the traditional concept of uniform circular motion of celestial bodies: by Ptolemy, the planets moved in vasitis unevenly. This foreshadowed the revolutionary idea of J. Kepler on the motion of the planets in ellipses. In relation to the Copernican model of the system of Ptolemy is a reflection of visibility, but not certainty, but the mathematical and geometrical aspect of Ptolemy's model includes elements of the heliocentric. In the "Almagest" Ptolemy argues geocentrism truth, however, proved that the original text carefully etched mention of the heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos, known to Ptolemy. . Ptolemy marked the beginning of work in the field of trigonometry (spherical and plane), opened the refraction in the Earth's atmosphere, studied the phenomenon of reflection and absorption of light, laid the foundations of geography (geographic coordinates indicated ca . 8000 points of the earth's surface), was engaged in the chronology and the theory of music. For the history of astrology is crucial work of Ptolemy's "Four Books" ( "Tetrabiblos, op. after 141 g.). This book, which is a systematic exposition of astrological knowledge of antiquity, had an enormous impact on the Arab and European astrology subsequent centuries. Ptolemy is also the author of the work on astrological weather prediction "Phases of the fixed stars", Proceedings of Astroliteastronomical problems on a planetary hypothesis "," Tsentilokvium "(" Karpos "," Book of fruits "; authorship P. doubtful), "Ready (astronomical) tables", "scheme and rules for using prepared tables".
Ptolemy was the first astrology reformulated in terms of natural philosophy of Aristotle, and "Tetrabiblos" can be considered as an application of Aristotelian physics to the lunar world. However, it should be noted that the astrological teachings of Ptolemy is not entirely coincide with the main line of Hellenistic astrology. Modern American researchers R. Hand, and R. Schmidt reasonably emphasize that Ptolemy, in essence, rejected most of the tradition, the heir of which he was. Also unclear was whether a practicing astrologer Ptolemy: either "Tetrabiblose, nor anywhere else did not cite a single horoscope drawn up by Ptolemy, and this causes concern to the constructions of Ptolemy with some caution.
Edition of Ptolemy encompass not only the area of astrology and astronomy. Among his works: "Table of kingdoms" (the chronology of ancient kingdoms), . "On Music" ( "The Harmony") in the three books, . "On Analemma", . "Planisphere", . "Optics" in five books (Ptolemy's authorship questionable), . "Geography", . "The prevailing criteria" (a treatise on the theory of knowledge and the soul), . In addition, P. attributed some 50 works, but with a low degree of reliability.
In honor of P. named minor planet 4001 and the lunar crater Ptolemaeus.
