Philolaus of Croton( greatest representative of ancient Pythagorean philosophy)
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Biography Philolaus of Croton
After the defeat of the Pythagorean Union 454 g. BC. lived and taught in Thebes, as well as in Tarentum, where he was a pupil of Archytas. Philolaus - the first representative of the Pythagorean school, who published his theory. Fragments of the philological treatise "On Nature" - the only direct source of the study of ancient Pythagoreanism. Philolaus constructs "the entire cosmos and everything in it" from the "limitless and predelopolagayuschih" elements. The synthesis of these two principles in an ordered space is only possible thanks to the 3 rd principle - "Harmony", which is understood as a numerical ratio (a term taken from music theory and at the same time means an octave). Different levels of existence - space-geometric, . Physics, . Biology, . mental and mental - has consistently translated into arithmetic plan and expressed in numbers, . which simultaneously appear and their existent entity, . and a logical definition: three-dimensional quantity is expressed in the number 4 (point, . range, . plane, . body), . quality and color - 5, . Animations - 6, . Intelligence, . Health and trudnoidentifitsiruemy phenomenon of consciousness, . which F,
. called "light", - 7, love, friendship and the desirability of thinking - 8. Special place in the ontological aritmologii F. occupied desyateritsa (decade), to put it completeness and perfection of a series of numbers and thus have a universal formula of all being.
Fragments of Philology hold the first in the history of Greek philosophy is clearly articulated epistemological theory: "everything knowable, is the number, because without it nothing can neither conceive nor know". In cosmology Philolaus - creator of the first negeotsentricheskoy system: in the center of the universe is a pristine fiery body (mythological names - Hestia, . Fortress Zeus, . The mother of the gods), . revolve around the Earth (with a period of 24 hours), . Moon, . Sun, . five planets and the sphere of fixed stars,
. Between the "central fire" and the Earth was postulated invisible Antizemlya (introduced to explain the greater frequency of lunar eclipses than solar). Thus, the number of celestial bodies is 10, embodies the fullness of being. F. was aware of the fact that the Moon shines by reflected light and, moreover, in its concept and the sun has already borrows its light from the "central fire".
In honor of Philology named lunar crater Philolaus.