(1431 - after 1463)
. Polished verse, allegorical and dark humor make it a unique phenomenon in medieval literature
was born near Paris in April 1431. Apparently, his mother was a native of the province of Berry. She could not leave when his son, and a boy fathered chaplain, Guillaume de Villon
, rector of the Church of St.. Benedict, which was home to Franц¬ois de Lodge, or de Monkorbe (this is how it should be called). He studied at the university and in 1449 received a bachelor's degree (quite late for his eighteen years of age), then became a licentiate, and in the summer of 1452 - Master. In his student years, participated in the misdeeds, kidnapping, along with classmates from the realms of Madame de la Bruyere hoarstone, who had not quite decent nickname. This event was dedicated to one of the earliest works of Villon
In June 1455 the poet mortally wounded in a street clash of the young priest, and was forced to flee from Paris, had moved to the Chevreuse and Bur-la-Reine, he spent time in love with the dissolute pleasures Abbess Monastery of Port Royal. In January 1456 he has been pardoned, and he returned to Paris. At the end of that year, . closer to Christmas, . Therefore, I decided to leave Paris (possibly, . in Angers), and wrote a little humorous poem of 320 lines - Leh (Les Lais), . otherwise - Small Testament (Petit Testament), . where the sign over his more than questionable "property" to various townspeople,
. At the same time, he got in touch with a gang that defrauded the Collц¬ge de Navarre. The names of the criminals soon became known to the authorities, and Villon
about four years (1456-1460) was hiding in the provinces of Berry, Orleans and Dauphine.
In the summer of 1461 the poet was in the episcopal prison camp Mensyur-Loire, and was released only by the royal amnesty. Friends and relatives of Francois
made for him a conditional pardon and he was able to return to Paris after a brief detention (3-7 November) was released, giving a written undertaking to reimburse its share of the loot (120 ECU). The poet has already managed to exhaust the patience of everyone, and when in early 1463 he took part in a street fight, he was sent to prison Chatelet and without much ado, was sentenced to be hanged. He filed a petition for clemency, and 5 January in Paris Parliament replaced the death penalty to a ten-year exile from the city.
At the end of 1461 or early 1462, immediately upon his return to Paris, Villon
created his masterpiece - Will (Testament), otherwise - Big Will (Grand Testament). It follows the structure of Lex, but mocking donation preceded by an extensive introduction (verses 1-832). In addition, the poet turned the poem numerous "ballad" and several other poems written at different times and on different occasions.
The most famous - Ballad-Marian prayer (Ballade pour prier Nostre Dame), which Franц¬ois had put into the mouth of his mother. Equally known ballad, . dedicated to the lively language Parisienne (The Ballad of the Parisian ladies - Ballade des femmes de Paris), . and ballad, . which satirized the rural idyll (its authorship is attributed to Bishop Philippe de Vitry) - Ballad of a dispute with Frank-Gonthier (Les contrediz de Franc Gontier),
. Rounding out the poem an epitaph Villon
himself and ballad about forgiveness (Ballade de mercy). Among the plug ballads better, no doubt, is the epitaph (L'pitaphe Villon
), better known as Ballad of the Hanged (Ballade des pendus): it was written at a time when Villon
, was awaiting execution. It is worthy of his talent ballad, in which he asks the judges of a three-day respite, and mocking poem where the poet consulted with the jailer for filing a petition for clemency.
Under the name of Villon
preserved several ballads written in the jargon of fraternity of thieves Kokiyarov. They are almost indecipherable. Villon
's poems were first published in 1489 a Parisian publisher Pierre Levet.