VOLTA, Alessandro (Volta Alessandro)( Italian physicist and physiologist.)
Comments for VOLTA, Alessandro (Volta Alessandro)
Biography VOLTA, Alessandro (Volta Alessandro)
Born February 18, 1745 in Como, near Milan. Educated in the Jesuit school in Como, where I discovered the ability to rhetoric and expressed interest in the natural sciences. At 24 years published the first scientific work, she was devoted to the theory of the Leyden jar. In 1774-1779 he taught physics at the gymnasium in Como. To this period belong his research on the chemistry and manufacturing of a number of physical and chemical devices. He studied the combustible gases, discovered 'marsh gas' methane, constructed a hydrogen lamp and eudiometer. But this popularity has brought the invention of Volta electrophoresis (apparatus, illustrating the electrification of bodies with the help of induction), which enabled him in 1779 to take a professorship at the University of Pavia. In 1784 he created a sensitive electroscope with a straw, invented the flat capacitor, found the conductivity of the flame. In 1815 became the rector of the Faculty of Philosophy University of Padua, in 1819, resigned.
In 1792, intrigued by experiments with L. Galvani 'animal' electricity, Volta decided to check their results, and very soon came to the conclusion that the observed effect is not physiological, and physical nature. He established the importance of using as electrodes of dissimilar metals, and made experiments with different pairs of electrodes. It turned out that physiological stimulation of the nerves, the stronger the farther apart the two metals in the following order: zinc, tin foil, tin, lead, iron, brass, etc.. to silver, mercury, graphite. This famous series of stress (activity) and was the core of the Volta effect. Frog muscle was only a passive, albeit a very sensitive electrometer, and active links are metals, from which the contact occurred and their mutual electrification (arose contact potential difference). Trying to increase the contact stress, Volta built a chain of different metals, which led to his invention, performing the revolution in the science of electricity: in 1800 he designed the first source of DC - 'Voltaic pile'. The device consisted of 20 pairs of copper and zinc circles, which were separated cloth spacers soaked in salt water. In 1801 Volta was invited to France to demonstrate the 'pillar', was awarded a gold medal and the title of Count. In the name of a unit called the Volta potential difference and voltage.
Died Volta in Como, March 5, 1827.