William Wordsworth (Wordsworth William)( English poet.)
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Biography William Wordsworth (Wordsworth William)
Born April 7, 1770 in Kokermaute (Cumberland County). He was the second of five children of D. Wordsworth, attorney and agent Dzh.Loutera (later the first Earl Lonsdale). In 1779, the boy identified in the classical school in Houkshede (North Lancashire), where he made an excellent knowledge of ancient philology and mathematics and well-read in English poetry. In Houkshede he indulged in a favorite pastime - pedestrian walks.
In 1787, Wordsworth went to St John's College, Cambridge University, where he focused primarily English literature and Italian language. During the holidays, he walked around the Lake District and Yorkshire, and wrote a heroic poem distihom Evening walk (An Evening Walk, 1793), in which many insightful paintings of nature. In July of 1790 Wordsworth and his college friend R. Jones on foot crossed France, which is undergoing a revolutionary awakening, and through Switzerland reached the lakes in northern Italy. Wordsworth's father died, and his employer left him Earl of Lonsdale to several thousand pounds, but refused to acknowledge this debt. The family had hoped that William would take holy orders, but it has not been to this location in November 1791 again went to France to Orleans, to thoroughly engage the French language. There he fell in love with the daughter of a military doctor Annette Vallon, who on Dec. 15, 1792 bore him a daughter, Caroline. Guardians ordered him to immediately return home. Wordsworth admitted his paternity, but not married to Anette.
Upon his return to London (December 1792) he published an evening stroll, and descriptive sketches (Descriptive Sketches), a story about traveling with Jones, written in France and painted enthusiastic acceptance of Revolution. Erupted in February 1793 Anglo-French war shook Wordsworth and permanently plunged him into depression and anxiety. Autumn of 1794 he died one of the young friends of Wordsworth, he bequeathed бё 900. This timely gift allowed the poetry of Wordsworth is fully surrender. From 1795 until mid-1797 he lived in the county of Dorsetshire, together with his only sister, Dorothea, they shared the full affinity. Dorothy believed in her brother, her support helped him out of his depression and become a great poet. He began with a tragedy Living Borderlands (The Borderers). Genuine feelings in a poem filled with white verses Ruined Cottage (The Ruined Cottage) - about the fate of the unfortunate woman, the poem later became the first part of the Horse (The Excursion).
In July 1797 Wordsworth moved to Alfoksden (Somerset County) - closer to ST Coleridge, who lived in the Noether-Stowe. Last year close contact with Coleridge formed a collection of Lyrical Ballads (Lyrical Ballads), . which included The Tale of the Old Sailor Coleridge, . Feeble-minded boy, . Turn, . Strings, . written a few miles from Tinternskogo Abbey and other poems Wordsworth,
. Anonymous Ballad edition was published in September 1798. Coleridge persuaded Wordsworth to begin the epic 'philosophical' poem about 'man, nature and society', entitled The Hermit (The Recluse). Wordsworth enthusiastically took up the matter, but got stuck in the composition. Under this plan they are written only in verse about the introduction of man, nature and life, an autobiographical poem, Prelude (The Prelude, 1798-1805) and Walk (1806-1814). In Alfoksdene he also completed (but not published), Peter Bell (Peter Bell).
In September 1798 Wordsworth to Coleridge traveled to Germany. Goslar Wordsworth, getting to the hermit, outlined white verse the story of his boyhood impressions and experiences of communion with nature. Later he switched written in Prelude as Books I. In addition, he wrote many poems in t.ch. cycle Lucy and Ruth. In December 1799 he and Dorothy rented cottage in Grasmire (Westmoreland County). In January 1801 Wordsworth published the second edition of Lyrical Ballads, . created by adding Grasmire narrative poem Brothers and Michael, and an extensive introduction to the arguments about the nature of poetic inspiration, . the Poet, . content and style of true poetry,
. Coleridge did not give any new work in the second edition, and it, absorbing the first, was published under the name of one of Wordsworth.
Winter and Spring of 1802 marked the poet's creative activity: were written Cuckoo, triptych butterfly, promises of immortality: Oda, determination and Independence. In May 1802 the old Earl of Lonsdale died, and the heir to Wordsworth agreed to pay 8000 pounds. This greatly enhanced the welfare of Dorothy and William, who wanted to marry Mary Hutchinson. In August, all three have been in Calais, which have seen with Annette Vallon and Caroline, and 4 October and Wordsworth married Mary. Their marriage was very happy. Between 1803 and 1810 she bore him five children. Dorothy stayed in the family brother.
In 1808, Wordsworth moved to more spacious house in the same Grasmire. There Wordsworth wrote blshuyu of walks and several prose works, in t.ch. his famous pamphlet on the Convention of Cintra, prompted by sympathy for the Spaniards ruled by Napoleon and indignation treacherous policy of England. This period was marred by a quarrel with Coleridge (1810-1812) and his death in 1812 his daughter Catherine and son Charles. In May 1813 Wordsworth left Grasmira and settled in Rydell Mount, two miles closer to Ambleside, where he lived until his death. In the same year, Wordsworth received the patronage of Lord Lonsdale, the post of Commissioner of Stamp Duties in the two counties, Westmoreland and parts of Cumberland, which enabled him to provide for the family. A position he served until 1842, when he was appointed a royal pension - 300 pounds per year.
After the Napoleonic Wars (1815), Wordsworth was able to satisfy their passion for travel, having visited several times in Europe. Prelude, 'a poem about his life', he graduated in 1805, but in 1832-1839 it carefully copied, softening too candid passages and inserting pieces, imbued with Christian sentiment underscored. In 1807 he published Poems in two volumes (Poems in Two Volumes), provided many great examples of his poetry. Walk came out in 1814, . her in 1815 was followed by the first collection of poems in two volumes (the third was added in 1820) in 1816 published an ode to Thanksgiving (Thanksgiving Ode) - on the winning end of the war in 1819 saw the light of Peter Bell and Auriga (The Waggoner), . written back in 1806, . and in 1820 - a series of sonnets Daddon River (The River Duddon),
. In 1822 came Religious Essays (Ecclesiastical Sketches), in the form of sonnets outlining the history of the Anglican Church since its formation. Again in the Yarrow (Yarrow Revisited, 1835) was written mostly on impressions from trips to Scotland in 1831 and 1833. The last book, published by Wordsworth, Poems were written mostly in youth and old age (Poems, Chiefly of Early and Late Years, 1842), which included Living in the borderlands and an early poem of Wine and sorrow (Guilt and Sorrow).
Literary Criticism in Wordsworth's poetry met with hostility, but the poet's fame has grown steadily. In 1839, Oxford University made him an honorary doctor of civil law, in 1843, after the death of R. Southey, he was awarded the title of poet laureate.
Initially, Wordsworth took the French Revolution with enthusiasm, but soon lost interest in her, but the revolutionary terror and dictatorship of Napoleon led him to the horror. The poet moved to the position of staunch conservatives. He became a spiritual stronghold of the Anglican Church. True humanity and compassion for the poor led him to make his sharp criticism of the Poor Law 1834. From 1838 to 1842 he did much to support in the parliament debated the bill on copyright.
Wordsworth - the poet of Nature and Man. He believed, . that his poetic purpose - to show the nature of man not as a refuge from suffering and liabilities, . but as a source of 'pure passion and fun', . everlasting inspiration and support, . the Presentation, . unless the person is able to truly see and hear, . eternal and universal values of the soul and the heart-love, . joy, . resilience and compassion,
. This belief is rooted in childhood and youth experiences of Wordsworth, which determined its development as a poet. Unusually strained eyes and ears gave the young man so deeply enjoying the beauty and mystery of nature that often he sank into a trance or a state of ecstasy, reverence and even awe.
Equally great was the love of Wordsworth to the people - children and heirs of nature. In childhood and adolescence he admired rural types, especially the shepherds and 'hawkers', ie. peddler. Their images appear in his poetry. The nature of that plan - the rampant, brutal, unfeeling vagabond, who, however, also a child of nature, capable of remorse and tenderness - perfectly revealed in Peter Bell. Wordsworth never tried dim, and his poetry is warmed by the feeling that Charles Lamb called 'excellent tolerance' to human weaknesses and shortcomings. Wordsworth loved the humble and meek heart. Sympathy for the heavy proportion of women is also apparent in his work. In his poetry often arise and images of children, sometimes to manifest, in contrast to the nearby adults, vision of the heart and imagination, as in the ballad We Seven (1798).
Wordsworth has always emphasized how much he owes his four great predecessors in English poetry - Dzh.Choseru, E. Spencer, William Shakespeare, and Milton. His style reveals signs of their continued influence, especially Milton, whose sonnets prompted Wordsworth to address this form of poetry. Later his poetry is mainly represented exactly sonnets, sometimes combined in cycles like Rivers Daddon and church essays. Narrative Poems Lyrical Ballads and in content and style akin to traditional English ballads, the familiar Wordsworth.
In the best poetic works of Wordsworth clear thinking is combined with expressive accurate description glimpsed the power of feeling, but in the depiction of characters as the appearance, and the human soul is transmitted with perfect certainty. The same fidelity to truth is an absolute let him in the book I walk (where the wanderer - it is actually the author), in Preludes in Tinternskom Abbey reveal his experiences of excitement, horror and duhovideniya so that it became a new word in poetry.
In his mature and late years of his life's creative genius has inspired the poetry of Wordsworth, to a lesser extent than in 1797-1807, but it is often the fruit of deep thoughts and feelings and at times reach new heights of artistic skill.
The last twenty years the poet's life were marred by a long illness beloved sister Dorothy. In 1847 he lost his only daughter, Dora, which was very fond. Sustainer he had a wife and loyal friends. Wordsworth died at Rydell Mount April 23, 1850.