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WRANGEL Pyotr

( Baron, Russia's military commander.)

Comments for WRANGEL Pyotr
Biography WRANGEL Pyotr
Born August 15, 1878, Mr.. G. Novoaleksandrovsk Kovno province. Baron, an Orthodox Christian in origin - a hereditary nobleman Ingermanland Province, the owner of the estate in the Minsk province.

Father - Nikolay E. Wrangel, a descendant of Swedish barons received in the XVIII century. Russian service. Although the genus Wrangel gave dozens of famous military commanders, himself N.E. Wrangell, having served in the LA-Guards. Cavalry Guards Regiment and the Ministry of the Interior, prefer to do business. Mother - Mary D. - daughter of an officer. In 1880 - 90-ies. family lived in Rostov-na-Donu; N.E. Wrangell served as director of the Insurance Company "Ekvitebl" and was a board member of several coal-stock companies, and owned a small estate in the Don region.

Peter was the eldest son in the family. Medium - Nicholas - later became a renowned art historian. Junior - Vsevolod - died in childhood of diphtheria.

Upon completion of studies at the Rostov realschule Peter at the request of his father entered the Mining Institute of Empress Catherine II in St. Petersburg: Baron N.E. Wrangel hoped that by becoming a mining engineer, eldest son will go to Siberia, where settled in some of the joint-stock companies in gold mining. In connection with his receipt of the Mining Institute, the family moved to St. Petersburg.

After graduating from university with a gold medal, Pyotr Wrangel compulsory by law for the completion of active military service in September 1901. volunteer received 1-th digit in the AL-Guards. Horse Regiment, which served many of the Wrangel. At the end of schedule - in October 1902 - he passed the test on the cornet Guard at the Nicholas School of the cavalry on the 1 st category, was made an officer (he obtained the rank Cornet Guard) and credited to the reserve cavalry of the Guard.

From October 1902 to January 1904. Wrangell served as an official for special assignments at the Irkutsk governor-general, but in the service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs became disillusioned (the circumstances of his service and life in Irkutsk unknown).

Since the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war, he voluntarily joined the army and in February 1904,. was enrolled in the 2 nd regiment of the Upper Udinsk Trans-Baikal Cossack Army with the rank of lieutenant, and then transferred in the 2 nd Argun Cossack regiment, who was a member of the detachment of General Rennenkampf. In May 1905. was transferred in the 2 nd hundreds of individual intelligence division. Took part in the hostilities and for the difference in fighting the enemy was awarded the Order of St.. Anna IV st. with the inscription "For Bravery" and the Order of St.. Stanislaus Article III. with Swords. Determined to remain in military service, he tried to catch up with their peers, graduates of military schools, in rank, but because the differences are not trying to get orders, and ranks. And made his point: In December 1904,. He was promoted to the centurion, and in September 1905. - A second-grade captain. Having both rank ahead of schedule, he not only caught up with peers in rank, but also avoided many of seniority.

From Manchuria, he wrote long letters home, which Baroness ppm. Wrangell, literary processed, sent to the journal "Historical Journal, where they were published.

After the war Wrangel in January 1906, Mr.. was transferred to the 55 th Finnish Dragoon Regiment of the renaming of the staff-captain, and until August, while on secondment to the Northern detachment General Orlov, attended his part in the suppression of peasant uprisings in the Baltic. In May 1906. for the difference in fighting the enemy (during the Russian-Japanese War) was awarded the Order of St.. Anna III Art.

In August 1906. He has made assignment to the LA-Guards. Cavalry Regiment. In March 1907. at the parade on the occasion of the regimental holiday Nicholas II saw him in the ranks Horse Guards (helped awards, tall and protective, far more modest in comparison with the Horse Guards, Dragoon form). Upon learning that the officer - a kind of Baron Wrangel, the emperor expressed his wish that he served in the LA-Guards. Horse Regiment, which Wrangel and was immediately transferred to a lieutenant in the Guards.

Among the fellow soldiers he stood extreme ambition, determination, resourcefulness and quick temper, while possessing normal for konnogvardeytsev immoderate inclination to binge. For predilection for champagne "Piper-Heidsieck" he was among his comrades nicknamed "Piper".

In August 1907. Wrangel entered the Academy of General Staff Mykolayiv. Education was given to him without much difficulty, since he already had a higher education mining engineer. In December 1909. was promoted to Lieutenant-Captain Guard. In June 1910. graduated from Grade 2 Academy on the 1 st grade and an additional course successfully. However, on their own counted by the General Staff did not and returned to continue his service in the LA-Guards. Horse regiment, in the expectation that the guards in the ranks of production is faster than in the General Staff.

In August 1907. He married Olga Mikhailovna Ivanenko, 24-year-old daughter and maid of honor Empress chamberlain. By 1914, Mr.. the family had three children: daughter Elena, son Peter and daughter Natalia.

In May 1912, successfully passed a course in the Cavalry Officers' School, he was appointed commander of the squadron l-rs. Cavalry Regiment. In August 1913. was promoted to captains Guard.

In July 1914. in the regiment Wrangel made at the First World War. August 6, in the battle of Causeni (East Prussia), led a squadron of cavalry attacked German batteries and repelled two guns, the squadron suffered heavy losses in personnel and horse of, . and Wrangel, . under which the last shot of the enemy's guns had been killed horse, . awarded the Order of St.,
. George IV st. In September he was appointed chief of staff of Consolidated-cavalry division, and then - deputy commander of LA-Guards. Cavalry Regiment to drill parts. In December he was appointed adjutant of the emperor and promoted to colonel of the guards.

In April, 1915. Wrangel was awarded the George weapon for, . that on February 20 during operation Prasnyshskoy (Poland) led Division conducted a successful exploration, . took the ferry across the river Dovinu, . With a further advance team knocked out two companies of German infantry with three fortified positions, . seized with the prisoners and baggage,
. In October, he was appointed commander of the 1 st Regiment Nerchinsk Trans-Baikal Cossack troops in December 1916. - Commander 2 nd Brigade of the Ussuri Cavalry Division. He took part in the fighting in South-West and Rumanian fronts wife was with him at the front, working in medical institutions parts, which he commanded.

In January, 1917. Wrangel was made for differences in military rank of major-general (getting them to the rank of general in the 13 th year of service was the fastest in the Imperial Army in the early XX.) And was appointed temporary commander of the Ussuri Cavalry Division. Persistent monarchist beliefs did not prevent him soberly assess the weaknesses and mistakes of Emperor Nicholas II and critical of its government. However, the February Revolution and the establishment of the Provisional Government, he met with hostility, because it accelerated the expansion of the Army. As far as possible, he opposed the activities of elected committees of soldiers' in the subordinate units and fought for the preservation of discipline. July 9, he was appointed commander of the 7 th Cavalry Division, and the next day - Consolidated Cavalry Corps commander. Commanding them, he covered the retreat of infantry units to line the river Sbruch during Tarnopolsky breakthrough of German troops in the period from 10 to 20 July, for which he was awarded the George Cross soldier IV st.

September 9, 1917, Mr.. Order п-.пг. Kerensky, who took after the elimination of the rebellion, General L.G. Kornilov post of Supreme Commander, Wrangell was appointed commander of the 3rd Cavalry Corps, stationed at Petrograd. However, when he arrived from Iasi (Romania) in Petrograd to take command, it became clear that the post has already been appointed general P.N. Krasnov. As the Army rapidly decomposed, massacres, acts of soldiers to officers, the authority of the Provisional Government fell, and the threat of seizure of power by the Bolsheviks grew, Wrangell chose to resign. However, Kerensky did not accept the resignation and a few days Wrangel was offered the post of commander of the Minsk district, from which he refused. In November, after the Bolshevik coup in Petrograd armed left to the family in the Crimea.

Going to get to the Don in the Volunteer Army of General Kornilov, but in February, 1918. Yalta was arrested by revolutionary sailors of the Black Sea fleet, and escaped execution only through the intercession of his wife.

After the occupation of Ukraine and the Crimea by German troops, in search of opportunities to take part in the fight against the Bolsheviks, Wrangel, in May 1918. went to Kiev, where he met with General Hetman PP. Skoropadsky, his former colleague. But his offer to become Chief of Staff of the Ukrainian army (actually not yet existing) refused, . because he was convinced, . that Germany would seek to dismember Russia and will not help to create in Ukraine a large army, . capable of fighting against the Bolsheviks,
.

Lived the summer in his estate in the Minsk province, he returned in August in Kiev, where he met with General п-.п°. Dragomirov. He accepted the invitation of General M.V. Alekseeva to come to the Kuban, the Volunteer Army to go and then as his assistant on the Volga, where the Allies planned to recreate the Entente, led by Alexeyev the Eastern Front against the Germans and the Bolsheviks. After receiving the proposal Dragomirova go with him first to the Kuban, and then to the Volga, where to begin the formation of mounted parts, agreed to Wrangel.

August 25, he arrived with his family in Ekaterinodar occupied by the Volunteer Army under General AI. Denikin. There, however, revealed that Alekseev was seriously ill and his move to the Volga, it is no longer. Posing Denikin and joined the Volunteer Army, Wrangel August 31 he was appointed temporary commander of the 1 st Cavalry Division.

Successfully commanded a division during the liberation from the Bolsheviks of the North Caucasus, he was appointed in October, its chief. In November, Denikin appointed him commander of the 1 st Cavalry Corps and in combat made a difference in a Lieutenant-General.

During the creation of the Armed Forces in southern Russia (VSYUR) and their reorganization in December, was appointed commander in chief VSYUR Denikin, commander of the Volunteer Army, and in January 1919. - Commander of the Caucasian Volunteer Army. On the other commanders of the armies it had much more resolute and tough fight against looting people, . drunkenness, . Bribery and the participation of officers in the speculation in food and manufactured goods, . because they are demoralized army and incited the local population against them,
. In February, fell ill with typhus, and was treated at Kislovodsk, a few days was with the death coming into consciousness from time to time, saying that God is punishing him "for an inordinate ambition" and gave a vow, if recovered, so do not be over ambitious.

On recovery Wrangel came into operation, and 8 (21) May was appointed commander of the Caucasian army, acting on the direction of Tsaritsyn. During the operation of occupation Tsaritsina been accused headquarters of the commander in chief about the lack of, in his view, supply and replenishment of the Army. He believed the main task VSYUR connection with the armies of the supreme ruler of Admiral AV. Kolchak in the region of Saratov for the subsequent joint attack on Moscow. Accordingly, in his opinion, the main thrust must be applied precisely in the direction of his army Tsaritsyn - Saratov. When in June of Kolchak's army under the blows of the Eastern Front Soviet troops withdrew beyond the Urals, . Wrangel quickly changed his view and suggested that Denikin concentrate in the Kharkov group consisting of 3 - 4 cavalry corps (meaning, . that he will command it) to attack towards Moscow,


. But Denikin rejected his offer and after taking Tsaritsina issued June 20 (3 July) directive (the so-called "Moscow"), . according to which the main attack in the Moscow area through Kharkov - Kursk - Eagle - Tulu struck the Volunteer Army of General VZ,
. May-Majewski. Caucasian same army task was to advance on Moscow in Saratov - Penza - Nizhny Novgorod - Vladimir. Wrangell considered this directive "death sentence" VSYUR, which the army had to march on Moscow in three divergent directions (as he put it, "not beat his fist and fingers spread)

. Denikin, Wrangel and regarded the claims of his proposal on the strategic plan as a result of, . first, . fears, . that his troops, . numerically yielding to the enemy, . defeated in the Saratov area, . secondly, . desire to "enter the first to Moscow,
.

Gradually, the strategic differences Wrangel and Denikin evolved into political. Although the Wrangell not share the radical views of the monarchist-minded officers, which should immediately declare VSYUR to restore the monarchy, he became the center of attraction of right-wing, monarchist forces. Conservative circles generals, . landlords, . big bourgeoisie, . clerics and public figures, . dissatisfied "nepredresheniem" Denikin, . his bid for a lot of the Cadets and "democratic" internal policy, . were put forward as an alternative to Denikin, Wrangel Island in office CINC VSYUR,
. Autumn Wrangel friends with AV. Krivoshein, . leader of the right "of the state union of Russia" (Burning), . and agreed with him follows: although because antimonarchic sentiments of the peasants and Cossacks, "the monarchy in Russia is better to restore five years later, . than five minutes early ", . But the Cadets of the Special Meeting must be removed and the power should be concentrated in the "right hands", . in connection with what is desirable and the change of the Commander in Chief VSYUR,
.

Promotion parts of the Caucasian Army, consisting mainly of the Kuban Cossack units to Saratov Soviet armies in South-Eastern Front has been stopped. In an effort to reverse the situation on the front, Wrangell demanded the Commander in Chief of Staff to increase the supply and maintenance of its army. One reason for the breakdown of supply and replenishment was the reluctance of the Kuban Cossacks to fight outside their home area and the predominance of "separatist" attitude in government institutions of the Kuban region (up to a break in relations with Denikin and secession from Russia),
. As Commander, . its headquarters and a special meeting was powerless to resolve these issues, . Wrangel more openly critical of Denikin, . crossed the permissible scope of military discipline: he began to distribute among the officers and public figures of their reports, . in which the failure of the Caucasian Army attributed to misguided strategies Denikin, . his inability "to arrange the rear and to improve relations with the Kuban, . inadequate supply and replenishment of its army,
. As a result, relations between Denikin and Wrangel assumed the character of the conflict.

Nevertheless, in November, they may well have found a common language, when relations with the Kuban Cossack authorities intensified to the limit. Comply with the directive of Denikin hover "order" in the Kuban declared "rear area" of the Caucasian Army, Wrangel had the necessary training operation, but he tried to stay in the shadows, entrusting its execution to General V.L. Pokrovsky, commander of the 1 st Kuban Corps, part of the Caucasian Army. Pokrovsky introduced Ekaterinodar their units and arrested the leaders of the separatists, one of whom was hanged.

After the defeat of the Volunteer Army, under the Eagle and the beginning of its retreat under pressure from right-wing Denikin generals and politicians, November 26 (9 December) 1919. removed May-Majewski and appointed commander of the Volunteer Army Wrangell. He assumed command as part of the army had already passed Kharkiv. Having decided that the most rational direction of departure is the Crimea, he began to devote the main forces of the army in the Crimea. However, Denikin, fearing a break with the Cossack regions, ordered the army to devote Don; execution of this order, the army cost of large losses. He tried to tough measures to combat looting, drunkenness, profiteering and corruption of military and civilian officials, accusing the Denikin in connivance these phenomena, we expand the army. In a situation where VSYUR army retreated, and in the rear mounted with the collapse and panic, Wrangel attempted to persuade the commanders of the armies (Don - General VI. Sidorina and the Caucasus - General Pokrovsky's) to the exclusion of Denikin from the post of Commander in Chief, which convene a meeting of commanders. However Sidorin during their private meeting objected, explaining that the Cossacks will refuse to obey the commander in chief with a baronial title, and Denikin, Wrangel learn about the plans, and rebuked the convening of the meeting

. Since Wrangell has openly shown its intention to occupy the post of Commander in Chief VSYUR, . Denikin, December 20 (Jan. 2, 1920) removed it from his post as commander of the Volunteer Army and turned it into a Volunteer Corps, . commander has been appointed general A.P,
. Kutepov. Wrangel, commander in chief ordered to go to the Kuban and Terek Cossacks for the formation of new buildings, but, arriving in Ekaterinodar, he found that exactly the same order was given to General A.G. Shkuro. Refusing to perform assigned tasks, he got a new - to organize the defense of Novorossiysk. But soon after his arrival in Novorossiysk General A.S. Lukomski was appointed Governor-General of the Black Sea, because its jurisdiction and subject to the strengthening of the Novorossiysk base, Wrangel felt that this one of the tasks was no longer itself.

14 (27) January, he received a proposal from Odessa, commander of the Novorossiysk region and the Crimea, General NN. Schilling, a position as his assistant on the military part. Denikin first agreed to this appointment, but due to the abandonment of Odessa on January 25 (7 February) and moved to Sebastopol Schilling, it could now only go on a trip to Crimea. Although Denikin turned out to different parties, including representatives of the Allies, the pressure that he would have appointed the commander of Wrangel in the Crimea, he did not give consent to this. In this situation, Wrangel decided to leave the army, January 27 (9 February) handed in his resignation and left in the Crimea

. In Sevastopol, Black Sea Fleet command, promising support, convinced him to put pressure on Schilling's totally discredited after defeats in New Russia and the shameful evacuation of Odessa, in which neither the army nor the refugees were not taken
. Faced with Schilling, Wrangel offered to give him a military power in the Crimea "a complete break with Denikin". But General YA.A. Sweeter, commander of the 3rd Army Corps, the only combat-ready forces in the Crimea, has refused to take the side of Wrangel and supported Schilling. As a result, 8 (21) February Denikin, Wrangel sacked in his resignation and asked him to leave the territory VSYUR.

Before his departure for Constantinople Denikin, Wrangel wrote a multi-page letter outlining his views on the history of their work and personal relationships. He accused Denikin in the fact that he was admitting the strategic and political mistakes that led to the defeat, everywhere sees "treason," "clinging to power" and not giving it to those who may yet save the situation (referring to himself). This letter Wrangel and his supporters had been copied and widely distributed in the Army, at home and abroad.

March 20 (April 2) in Constantinople Wrangel was invited to meet with the command of British forces in Turkey and the Black Sea. At this meeting he, . first, . was reported, . that Denikin, . evacuating the remnants VSYUR from Novorossiysk to the Crimea, . decided to leave his post and appointed a council of war from his superiors for the election of his successor, . inviting him and Wrangel Island (this was done under pressure from the British Mission),
. And secondly, it is proposed to return to the Crimea and to join the main command VSYUR (which guaranteed support), subject to an immediate end to fighting with the Bolsheviks and the conclusion of peace. Wrangel had this condition and 22 March (April 4) on the British destroyer "Emperor of India" has arrived in Sevastopol. Appearing at a meeting of the Military Council, he informed his superiors with the ultimatum of the British Government. Although initially the post of Commander in Chief claimed Kutepov and Sidorin was against Wrangel, this fact persuaded to stay on board candidacy Wrangel, who was openly supported by the British. On the same day Denikin issued an order appointing the commander in chief of Wrangel VSYUR.

One of the first orders of Wrangel openly declared himself military dictator, giving full power. At the head of government he created when the commander in chief he put Krivosheina, appointing the heads of central offices, with few exceptions, experienced bureaucrats from the pre-revolutionary experience and the right-wing beliefs. In an effort to draw lessons from the defeat of Kolchak and Denikin, . He gave priority to the strengthening of discipline in the army, . establish its relationship with the community and conducting activities, . are at least partially satisfy the interests of peasants and industrial workers,
. This course was called "left-wing politics Right-handed".

Unlike several rectilinear Denikin, Wrangel, demonstrated its ability to realistically take into account the real situation in Russia and occurred post 1917. changes, . ability to reject the idea, . institutions and people, . have shown to be ineffective, . and willingness to compromise with all the military and political forces, . capable of being allies of the White movement in the struggle against the Bolsheviks (he owns the formula "Although the devil, . but against the Bolsheviks! "),
. However, his compromises and concessions were purely tactical, more formal than substantive.

During April - May 1920. Wrangel decisive and tough measures to discipline in the units and reorganized the remnants VSYUR in the Russian army (assuming that the title of "volunteer" discredited). His Chief of Staff, he appointed his longtime aide to General P.N. Shatilova. His orders, he banned the arbitrariness and violence against the civilian population. To end the Cossack "separatist", . He dismissed and put on trial the commander of the Don Corps General Sidorina, . and imposed a Cossack Ataman and Governments, . caught in the Crimea without the peoples and territories, two contracts, . which has arrogated to himself the full authority over the Cossack troops,


. To draw the side of the Russian army of peasants, . he was the first of the leaders of the White movement decided to agrarian reform in the interests of the peasants, . breaking down the resistance of the landlords: May 25 (6 June) issued an "order of the earth", . which farmers receive for purchase of landed estates, . had actually captured their,
. Finally, he tried to ally NI. Makhno and to ensure that the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, supported the Russian army in the fight against the Bolsheviks. In the area of national policy sought to cooperate with Ukrainian organizations and Georgia. As a monarchist, and sincerely believing Jews among the chief culprits of the death of Russia, he opposed the monarchical and the pogrom agitation in the army and in the rear, considering unacceptable "to incite one part of the population to another"

. In foreign policy, Wrangel had been transformed from the UK, . insisted on the renunciation of active offensive operations for the sake of keeping the Crimea as a base of anti-Soviet forces, . in France, . demanding an offensive for the sake of supporting the Polish Army, . warring against the Red Army,
. However, despite all his efforts and his representatives in Europe and the United States, Wrangel did not get any heavy foreign borrowing, or sums of money in the currency possessed by Russia's foreign institutions. As a result, the treasury is chronically short of money, not for what was to purchase the necessary quantity of arms, ammunition, uniforms, equipment, fuel, etc.. The only source of money became a printing press, which led to rapid increases in prices and the impoverishment of the population, including military officers, officials and intellectuals. Russian army is experiencing a chronic shortage of all. In terms of commodity hunger and inflation of not getting salaries on time, you'll soon began to rob people. Evasion of France and Britain from the generous financial assistance of the Russian Army led to the complete disappointment of Wrangel allies.

May 25 (6 June) 25 thousandth Russian army withdrew from the Crimea and had smashed the half-decayed 13th Red Army occupied the northern counties Tauride province and moved in the direction Ekaterinoslav and Taganrog. However, all attempts to Wrangel and his staff build on the success or have failed. Tavrii peasants and Cossacks of the Don and Kuban, . war-torn, . do not want to fight and disgruntled looting and repression of white, . did not support the power of Wrangel, . therefore failed to establish a replenishment and supply the army, . and expand the occupied territory,
. Attempts to capture the Kuban, Ekaterinoslavskuyu province and part of the Right-Bank Ukraine failed. Makhno had rejected the proposed alliance, signed a contract with the command of the Southern Front, and his troops launched military operations against parts of the Russian Army.

As a result, bloodless Russian army in October, left the North Tavria, and in November, was unable to hold and Crimea. Wrangel had done everything possible to carry out the planned evacuation and removal of the largest number of troops: the loading took place in relative order and (more than 100 vessels) in Turkey were removed almost 75 thousand. officers, Cossacks, soldiers and officials, as well as about 60 thousand. civilian refugees, most of which was connected with the army.

In Turkey, its main objective the preservation Wrangell believed the army as a combat-ready forces and the creation of this force based on the body, which could claim the role of Russia's government in exile. In this way, and he himself provided the conservation status of the Chief.

Army, the information in three corps, was placed in the camps and provided with cash France. During the winter 1920/21 he was. command succeeded by excluding those disenchanted with the White movement, the harsh measures and the organization of regular exercise to restore discipline and combat capability of units. In March 1921. Wrangell formed Russian council as the legitimate successor carrier power "

. However, neither the governments of Western Europe, . nor the majority of emigre organizations did not recognize the Russian Council, . because they thought armed struggle against the Bolshevik Russia lost power, . and most Wrangell - too right and discredited, . to lead the military-political emigration,
. Therefore, no money for the maintenance of the army and aid to refugees Wrangel not received. The French Government, . first, . fear (this was in solidarity with the British) to maintain such a formidable force on the Bosporus and, . secondly, . unwilling to bear more costs, . gradually reduced the issuance of food, . and its representatives in Turkey, by all means pushing officers, . soldiers and Cossacks to move to the position of civilian refugees, . departure for work in other countries, . until the countries of South America, . and even a return to Soviet Russia,
. Finally, the Cossack and the government broke a contractual relationship with the commander in chief and out of obedience to him.

Meanwhile, doing mostly political and financial issues, Wrangel less attention paid military, resulting in a real military power is gradually picking up in their hands Kutepov general, commander of the Volunteer Corps.

To save the remnants of the army, Wrangel had in the second half of 1921 - the first half of 1922. transport them to Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes (Yugoslavia), where they are because of lack of staff of the Commander in Chief were gradually transferred to the 'labor situation ", ie started earning her living by working. Many began to leave the part and disperse in different countries. In September, after moving to Serbia ceased to exist Russian Council. Wrangel himself lived with his family and staff in the town Sremskije Karlovci (Serbia).

In December, 1921. Constantinople with the help of his secretary NM. Kotlyarevskogo he began to write memoirs about the period of his life from November 1916 to November 1920., Which was completed in December 1923. in Sremskije Karlovtsy. One of the main motivations of this work was the need to defend in the eyes of emigration its position in the conflict with Denikin, who had already begun the publication of Essays on Russian Troubles "

. In 1924, . when soldiers of Russian army dispersed to different countries and have to earn on their own work, . left without troop headquarters turned into a sort of associations of fellow soldiers and everywhere, . inhabited by former officers, . there were various military organizations, . Wrangel created "Russian Military Union (EMRO),
. According to his plan, . EMRO should have been allowed to retain in its hands centralized management of all military organizations, . protect officers from the influence of various political forces (from the Socialists to the monarchists) and, . whenever possible, . maintain its mobilization readiness,
. Wrangell, retaining the title of chief of the Russian army, became chairman of EMRO. Increasingly drawing away from the monarchists, . Wrangell sought, . primarily, . insofar as the remnants of the Treasury, . provide material assistance to officers and aim to protect them from engaging in reckless actions against the USSR, . that, . of the then balance of forces, . could only lead to unnecessary losses and discredit EMRO,
. In particular, it is very cautious attitude to those who came from the Soviet Union and seeking contact with immigrants, posing as representatives of some underground organizations fighting against the Bolsheviks. Due to this he managed to save himself and his environment from engaging in "Trust", a provocative operation of the OGPU

. Since, . however, . headquarters was in Paris EMRO, . General Kutepov without his knowledge created within EMRO subordinate only to him the structure, . that the means, . received from foreign intelligence, . conducted a reconnaissance and diversionary activities in the territory of the USSR (largely under the control of the OGPU),
. This led to a serious quarrel between him and Kutepov.

In 1925, Mr.. Wrangel family, in which another child was born - a son Alex, moved to Brussels, and he stayed with his mother in Sremska Karlovtsy, where among other cases in winter 1926. began to edit his memoirs and preparing them for publication. The decision to publish was dictated, . first, . material causes (the money in the treasury exhausted EMRO, . income from outside had almost ceased, and he and his family lived on very scarce resources) and, . secondly, . need to respond to Denikin presentation of the conflict between them in "Essays on Russian Troubles",
.

In November 1926, Mr.. Wrangel moved to Brussels. He is actively searching for funds to establish an organization that could conduct intelligence and counterintelligence activities against the Soviet Union and, moreover, would be protected from the ingress of the OGPU agents and Red Army Intelligence Agency. After reading the 5 th, the latest volume of Essays on Russian turmoil, he also decided to expedite the publication of his memoirs. As foreign and emigre publishing house, one after another refused to print them, he handed them to AA. von Lampe for publication in the annals of "white matter". In February, 1928. he called von Lampe from Berlin to Brussels, and together with him and edited them permanently on the advice of von Lampe gave them the name - "Notes". He reduced the text by 1 / 8 of their volume, in particular, . removed were critical characteristics of Nicholas II and the most dramatic passages from the controversy with Denikin (years of exile have tempered ambition Wrangel and he, . obviously, . one hand, . no longer considered themselves to be quite right in conflict with Denikin, . on the other - realized, . what damage the White movement in Southern Russia objectively brought his struggle for the post of Commander in Chief VSYUR irrespective of his subjective intentions),
.

In March, 1928. Wrangel flu. His condition deteriorated markedly, and April 11, doctors diagnosed his tuberculosis of left lung. Hopes for a recovery is almost not there, and he gave orders to the death. One of them was: after the issuance of the Notes in the 5 th and 6 th-volume chronicle "White thing" original full text of memories to burn (this was done in compliance with all formalities, October 31). April 25, 1928, Mr.. he died (there is a version that he was poisoned by an agent of the OGPU, but it was still serious arguments not confirmed).

Genral P.N. Wrangel was buried in Brussels, at the cemetery in Yukkl-Calvet. In October 1929. remains were transported to Belgrade, where re-buried in the Russian Church Holy Trinity.

Compositions:

Wrangell P.N. In the best flying squad, General Rennenkampf / / Historical Gazette. 1907. Vol CVIII. P.158 - 203.
Wrangell P.N. In the rear of the Japanese during the battle at Shahe / Historical Gazette. 1909. T. CXVIII. S.542 - 568.
Wrangell P.N. Notes (November 1916 - November 1920) / / white matter: Chronicle of a white anti .- Berlin, 1928. Kn.V, VI.


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