Francis Galton (Galton Francis)( English psychologist and anthropologist.)
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Biography Francis Galton (Galton Francis)
Born February 16, 1822, near Birmingham. Cousin of Charles Darwin, the grandson of Erasmus Darwin. Francis received a medical and biological education and intended to become a doctor, but, having inherited his father's death fairly large state, engaged in science. Numerous expeditions Galton studied people with primitive material culture. Especially successful have been studies in the south-west Africa (1850-1852). Later Galton studied meteorology and anthropology.
In an effort to explain the individual characteristics of people, Galton introduced in psychology and anthropology, the concept of heredity. Analyze a number of biographies of prominent people, trying to ascertain their degree of kinship. From these studies concluded that intellectual ability is largely determined by hereditary factors. The results presented in the book Inheriting talent (Hereditary Genius, 1869), which laid the foundations of differential psychology. To measure the psychological and physiological differences Galton constructed a special apparatus (ultrasonic whistle, allowing to determine the auditory sensitivity, etc.). Developed methods of determining capacity, served as the basis of tests, suggested methods of statistical data processing, in particular the method of determining the correlations between the measured values.
In this paper, studies of human abilities (Inquiries into Human Faculty, 1883) Galton coined the term 'eugenics' to denote the theory of heredity, human health and ways to improve the human race. In the last ten years of life scientist eugenics was the main subject of his interest. During this period, was founded Galtonovskaya laboratory in University College in London and established a fellowship in his. In 1908 in London, was founded Eugenics Education Society (now the Eugenics Society), the first Honorary President of which became the Galton. From 1849 to 1910, a scientist has published over 200 articles on a wide range of issues. In 1909 he was elevated to the dignity of knighthood. Galton died in Heyzlmire (Surrey) 17 January 1911.