Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich)( German philosopher)
Comments for Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich)
Biography Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich)
Born in Stuttgart, Germany (Duchy of Wц+rttemberg) August 27, 1770. His father, Georg Ludwig Hegel, Secretary of the Treasury, was a descendant of the Protestant family, exiled from Austria in the period of the Counter-Reformation. After graduating from high school in his hometown, Hegel studied at the theological department of Tubingen University in 1788-1793, a course in philosophy and theology, and defended his master's thesis. At the same time in Tц+bingen studied Friedrich von Schelling, who was five years younger than Hegel, and Friedrich HцTlderlin, whose poetry had a profound influence on German literature. Friendship with Schelling and HцTlderlin has played a significant role in the mental development of Hegel. While studying philosophy at university, he drew particular attention to the work of Immanuel Kant, which were widely discussed at that time, as well as the poetic and aesthetic works of Friedrich Schiller. In 1793-1796, Hegel served as a private tutor in a Swiss family at Berne, and in 1797-1800 - in Frankfurt. All these years he studied theology and political thought, and in 1800 made the first sketch of a philosophical system of the future ( 'fragment of the system').
After his father's death in 1799, Hegel received a small inheritance, which, combined with his own savings, enabled him to abandon uchitelstvovaniya and enter the arena of academic activities. He presented to the University of Jena first thesis (Preliminary thesis dissertation on the orbits of the planets), and then the very thesis of planetary orbits (De orbitis planetarum) and in 1801 received permission to lecture. In Hegel 1801-1805 - Assistant Professor, and in 1805-1807 an extraordinary professor at a very modest content. Jena lectures covered a wide range of topics: logic and metaphysics, natural law and pure mathematics. Although not a great success, years in Jena was one of the happiest periods in the life of the philosopher. However, Schelling, who taught at the same university, he published 'A Critical Journal of Philosophy' ( 'Kritisches Journal der Philosophie'), in which they were not only editors, but authors. In the same period, Hegel produced the first of his major work, Phenomenology of Spirit (Phnomenologie des Geistes, 1807), after the publication of which the relations were severed with Schelling. In this work, Hegel gives a first sketch of his philosophical system. It provides a steady procession of consciousness from the immediate sensory experience through the perception of credibility to the knowledge of sensible reality, which only leads us to the absolute knowledge. In this sense, the real is the only reason.
Without waiting for the publication of the Phenomenology, Hegel left Jena, not wishing to stay in the captured French town. He left his position at the university in difficult personal and material circumstances. For a while Hegel edited 'Bamberg newspaper' ( 'Bamberger Zeitung'), but less than two years later rejected the 'newspaper prison' and in 1808 received the rector of the place of the classical grammar school in Nuremberg. Eight years, that Hegel held in Nuremberg, gave him a rich experience of teaching, leadership and communication with people. In high school, he taught philosophy of law, ethics, logic, phenomenology of spirit and review course in Philosophy, he also had to carry the lessons of literature, Greek, Latin, mathematics and history of religion. In 1811 he married Maria von Tuher, whose family belonged to the Bavarian nobility. This relatively quiet period in the life of Hegel contributed to the appearance of his most important works. In Nuremberg, published the first part of the Hegelian system - Science of Logic (Die Wissenschaft der Logik, 1812-1816).
In 1816, Hegel resumed university career, having received an invitation to Heidelberg in place, which was previously occupied by his rival for the Jena Jacob Fries. At Heidelberg University, he taught for four semesters, from the person lectures was compiled textbook Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Enzyklopdie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse, . first edition 1817), . apparently, . the best introduction to his philosophy,
. In 1818 Hegel was invited to the Berlin University of the place which once occupied the famous JG Fichte. The invitation was initiated by the Prussian Minister of religion (who was in charge of religious affairs, health and education) with the hope to subdue with the help of Hegel's philosophy dangerous spirit of rebellion, wandering among the students.
The first lectures of Hegel in Berlin remained almost unheeded, but gradually began to collect all the courses a large audience. Students not only from various regions of Germany, but also from Poland, Greece, Scandinavia and other European countries flocked to Berlin. Hegelian philosophy of law and political system increasingly became the official philosophy of the Prussian state, . and entire generation of educators, . officials and statesmen have borrowed their views on the state and society from Hegel's theory, . has become a real force in the intellectual and political life of Germany,
. The philosopher was at the top of success, when suddenly died Nov. 14, 1831, apparently from cholera raged in those days in Berlin.
The latest published work of Hegel's philosophy was the right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts oder Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse), which was published in Berlin in 1820 (on the title - 1821). Shortly after Hegel's death some of his friends and students began to prepare a complete edition of his works, which was implemented in 1832-1845. It includes not only works published during the life of a philosopher, but also lectures, based on extensive, rather confusing manuscripts, as well as student records. As a result, were published in the famous lectures on the philosophy of history, and philosophy of religion, aesthetics and the history of philosophy. The new edition of Hegel's works, partly to accommodate new material, began after the First World War under the leadership of George Lassona in the 'Philosophical Library' and after his death was continued by J. Hoffmeister. The old edition has been re-edited by G. Gloknerom and appeared in 20 volumes, it was supplemented by a monograph on Hegel and the three volumes of the Dictionary of Hegel (Hegel Lexikon) Gloknera. Since 1958 after the foundation in Bonn, 'Archives of Hegel's' in 'the German Research Society' was established 'Hegel Commission', take on a general revision of the new historical-critical collected works. From 1968 to 1994 directed the work of the Archive of O. Peggeler.