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Heinrich Heine (Heine Heinrich)

( German poet and novelist, critic and essayist)

Comments for Heinrich Heine (Heine Heinrich)
Biography Heinrich Heine (Heine Heinrich)
(1797-1856) formulated it in a number of JW Goethe, Schiller, and G. E. Lessing. Born December 13, 1797 in Dusseldorf in a Jewish family. The French occupation introduced into the atmosphere split Germany's progressive ideas, in t.ch. new principles of civil and religious equality, which all his life did Heine 'liberal' in the tradition of the French Revolution. He received a mixed education certainly helped to shape it into a whole cosmopolitan outlook. After a private Jewish school, he studied at the Lyceum, where lessons were taught in French and even Catholic priests.
Heine proved unsuccessful attempts to do business, first in Frankfurt (1815), then in Hamburg (1816-1819). He studied at Bonn (1819), GцTttingen (1820) and Berlin (1821-1823), which was strongly influenced by Hegel. Eventually, he returned to GцTttingen, in 1825 received the title of Doctor of Laws. After Prussia in 1823 deprived Jews of civil rights, Heine became a sworn enemy of the Prussian regime, although, like many contemporaries, adopted Lutheranism (1825). The official change of religion did not give him any advantage, because his writings provoked power far more than his religion. Difficulties with the joint Austro-Prussian censorship began very soon, and chased him all his life.

In Heine's main area of interest has always been a place of literature. In Bonn, he met A. Schlegel and attended his lectures, in Berlin, has already held the writer was well received in the literary circle of Rachel von Ense. First verses of Heine published in 1817, the first collection, Poems (Gedichte), was published in 1821, and the first cycle of poems, Lyrical Intermezzo (Lyrisches Intermezzo), - in 1823. He tried his strength and political journalism.

After university, Heine supposed to do in Hamburg, legal practice, but ultimately chose to literary activity and very quickly consolidated its position both in prose and in poetry. The first of four volumes of his Reisebilder (Reisebilder, 1826), on foot journey in the Harz mountains (Journey to the Harz - Die Harzreise), won him wide popularity, and continue it for a living literary work. Travel picture also marked the beginning of his long-term cooperation with the Hamburg publisher Yu Kampe. During these years, Heine travels a lot, holds about 3-4 months in England (1827), then in Italy (1828), which is delayed a little longer, these visits served as material for these volumes Reisebilder (1829, 1831). At the same time he revised his poems and songs in the book (Buch der Lieder, 1827) that won widespread recognition, not least because many of the poems were set to music by Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann. In 1829 Johann Cotta suggested Heine become co-editor of his Munich newspaper 'new general political annals' ( 'Neue Allgemeine Politische Annalen'). Heine took the offer, but already in 1831, perhaps hoping for professorships (it it never received), left the post of editor.

From now on, Heine was a professional writer. The July Revolution of 1830 gave him the answer to the question of what to do next: in May 1831 he left Germany and settled permanently in Paris. Paris abruptly changed his life, he rose to new heights as a writer and publicist. His reporting focused on the French public life, politics, art and theater; reports on Germany - literature and philosophy. He began with a series of articles about Paris in kottovskom 'morning leaf' ( 'Morgenblatt'), continuing the work cycle of publications for 'Universal newspaper' ( 'Allgemeine Zeitung') the same publisher. The latter displeased Austrian Chancellor Metternich C. and fully been published only in book form under the title The French case (Franzsische Zustnde). This book is devoted to the regime of Louis Philippe, and contains the famous preface to the sharp criticism of William IV of Prussia, calling on him to give the people the promised constitution. Articles by Heine of Germany came out in two languages and include the works of the Romantic school (Die romantische Schule, 1833) and the history of religion and philosophy in Germany (Zur Geschichte der Religion und Philosophie in Deutschland, 1834).

In 1834, Heine met a young saleswoman Kresans Eugenie Worldwide, which are perpetuated in poetry under the name of Matilda. In 1841 they were married.

In 1835 the Reichstag in Prussia banned the product of a number of politically progressive authors 'Young Germany' ( 'Das junge Deutschland'). Name Heine stood in the list next to the names K. Gutzkow, G. Laube, T. Mundt and L. Vinbarga. Unable to curry favor with the official Prussia, Heine did not get on with the German revolutionaries, the reformers, which in Paris brought together around themselves L. Burns. Bern sharply attacked by Heine in his letters from Paris (Briefe aus Paris), and Heine was forced to answer. He did this after the death of Bern in Ludwig Borne. Book of memoirs (Ludwig Brne, eine Denkschrift, 1840), which is expected at home is very cold reception. In the same 1840 Heine resumed in 'Universal newspaper' versatile publications about the life of Paris, in 1854 published a book called Lutetia (Lutezia). These were his last experiences in the field of journalism, he began to write poetry, . which once again took the leading position in his work, . as evidenced by published one after another book Atta Troll (Atta Troll, . 1843), . New Poems (Neue Gedichte, . 1844) and Germany,
. Winter's Tale (Deutschland, ein Wintermrchen, 1844), the outcome of a year earlier visit to his homeland and one of the most powerful of his works.

By the time the poet's health was severely impaired, family quarrels, followed the death of his uncle in 1844, exacerbated the disease, which in 1848 had chained to the bed Heine. This misfortune, however, do not put an end to his literary work. Although the disease has turned his life into a continuous pain, . creative energy has grown immeasurably Heine, . evidenced Romansero (Romanzero, . 1851) and Poems 1853 and 1854 years (Gedichte 1853-1854), . followed by a further collection, . published posthumously,
. Heine died in Paris on February 17, 1856, buried in Montmartre cemetery

. The works of Heine's easy to read - in part because he knew a great deal to say simply and briefly, and partly because he never went into a lengthy debate, preferring short poetry or prose and move easily from one subject to another
. His popularity, but not his true place in literature, is based on the verse, the brilliant and inimitable songs (Lieder), widely known throughout the world. He was not only a born poet, but also a brilliant prose writer, combining in his works, clarity Lessing, whom he admired, with the genius of Nietzsche, who admired him. Heine's prose in the book Le Grand (Das Buch Le Grand), tells the story of the entry of the French in Dusseldorf, is on a par with the ballad grenadiers (Die Grenadiere), on the same event. In general, travel notes Heine gives a vivid picture of his talent - a sharp mind, a biting irony, the satirical gift. However, against the background of poems written by Heine in the last 15 years of life, everything else becomes secondary. As a poet, a lyricist, he has achieved excellence.


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  • selling a unique book of Heinrich Heine. edinstvennyi surviving copy of the first posthumous \ 1857 \ in the gift registration. in German. excellent condition
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