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Johann Gottfried Herder (Herder Johann Gottfried)

( German writer and thinker.)

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Biography Johann Gottfried Herder (Herder Johann Gottfried)
(1744-1803)
Born August 25, 1744 in Morungene (East Prussia). The son of a schoolteacher. In 1762, was enrolled at the Theological Faculty at the University of KцTnigsberg. From 1764 a teacher in a church school in Riga, in 1767 became assistant to the abbot of the two most important parishes of Riga. In May 1769 departed on a journey, and by November had reached Paris. In June of 1770 as a companion and mentor, Crown Prince of Holstein-Eytenskogo went along with his wards in Hamburg, where he met Lessing. In Darmstadt Flaksland met Caroline, who became his wife. In Strasbourg, underwent an unsuccessful operation eyes and became close friends with JW Goethe, then a student at the formation of which as the poet Herder had a decisive influence. In 1771-1776 he was the chief pastor and member of the consistory in Byukeburge, through the mediation of Goethe in 1776 invited to Weimar, where he became court preacher and member of the consistory. Here, not counting the trip to Italy in 1788-1789, he spent the rest of life. In 1801 he headed the consistory and received a patent for the nobility of the Elector of Bavaria. Herder died Dec. 18, 1803
. The first of his works of major, . Sketches of modern German literature (Fragmente ц+ber die neuere deutsche Literatur, . 1767-1768) and Critical Forests (Kritische Wцгlder, . 1769), . Herder erected on the grounds, . laid his great forerunner Lessing,
. Outline emerged in addition to the literary letters, Lessing, and Woods begins with a criticism of his Laocoon. Articles Excerpts from correspondence about Ossian and the songs of ancient peoples, and Shakespeare in the book about the German nature and art (Von deutscher Art und Kunst, 1773; issued a Joint. with Goethe), the policy document movement 'Sturm und Drang', Herder tries to prove that the literature ultimately goes back to folk songs. Widespread fame earned him a collection of folk art folk songs (Volkslieder, . 1778-1779), . later renamed the Voice of the peoples in the songs (Stimmen der VцTlker in Lidern), . composed of fine translations of songs of various nations and original poems of the Herder, . Goethe and M. Claudius,
. The greatest work of Herder's ideas to the philosophy of history (Ideen zur Geshichte der Menschheit, tt. 1-4., 1784-1791), remained unfinished. The idea in a broad sense consisted in finding a close relationship between nature and cultural development of the human. For Herder, history - the scene of acts of God, the execution plan of God and the revelation of God in nature. The sole purpose of human existence - the progress of mankind and humanity.


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