John Frederick William Herschel (Herschel John Frederick William)( English astronomer and physicist.)
Comments for John Frederick William Herschel (Herschel John Frederick William)
Biography John Frederick William Herschel (Herschel John Frederick William)
Born March 7, 1792 in Slough (county of Buckinghamshire). In 1813 he graduated from the University of Cambridge. Some time to study mathematics and law, from 1816 he helped his father in the observatory, and after his death in 1822, continued his astronomical observations.
The first work was devoted Dzh.Gershelya double stars, which he found more than 3000, but the main theme of his research became the nebula: in his catalog of 2307. In 1834 Herschel traveled to South Africa to the Cape of Good Hope, where he established reflecting telescope with a focal length of 6.1 m and a small refractor. With their help during the four years studying the southern sky, opened in 1202, double stars and 1,708 nebulae and star clusters. Studied in detail the Magellanic Clouds and the distribution of the southern stars, watching Halley's comet when it appeared in 1835. He returned to England in 1838. Next 7 years devoted to the description of their African Studies, . published in 1847 Results of astronomical observations, . performed at the Cape of Good Hope in 1834-1838 (Results of Astronomical Observations Made During 1834-1838 at the Sape of Good Hope),
. Among his other works - essays astronomy (Outlines of Astronomy, 1849), as well as the General Catalog of nebulae (General Catalogue of Nebulae, 1864), containing data about 5079 nebulae and star clusters. Amended after the Danish astronomer J. Dreyer and published under the title New General Catalog of nebulae and star clusters (New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, . 1888), . he became canonical among astronomers and is abbreviated as NGS,
Being engaged in photography, even in 1819 Herschel discovered the ability of sodium hyposulfite dissolve silver salts. After 20 years, regardless of W. Talbot proposed to use for image fotografichesih paper coated with photosensitive material. First introduced in the photograph the terms 'positive' and 'negative'.
Herschel was also engaged in educational and literary activities, has created a sort of public education in the Cape Colony at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1842, he became an honorary rector of the University of Aberdeen. His preliminary discussions on the study of natural philosophy (Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, 1830) were translated into French, German and Italian languages. In the last years of life Herschel wrote a popular book on physical geography and meteorology. Like the Newton, was director of the Mint (1850-1855).
Herschel died in Collingwood (Kent) 11 May 1871.