Francisco JosöL Goya (Goya y Lucientes Francisco Jose)( The great Spanish painter and engraver, an innovator.)
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Biography Francisco JosöL Goya (Goya y Lucientes Francisco Jose)
Born March 30, 1746, in the mountain village of Fuendetodos in Aragon, the son of a master gilder. When Francisco was 13 years old, the family moved to Zaragoza and the boy was given to an artist's studio Lusa-and-Martinez. There Goya had met with Martin Zapatero, who became his friend.
The first order was an artist at age 17. This was the altar of the parish church in Fuendetodos. At the age of 19, Goya moved to Madrid and took part in the contest, hoping to be accepted into the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando. His painting was rejected, and he went to Italy. In 1771 he received the second prize of Parma Academy of Arts and returned to Zaragoza, where he did murals in the church of Nuestra Senora del Pilar.
At this time, Lusa-and-Martö-nez, Francisco Goya introduced Bayeux, a member of the Royal Academy and the court painter of King Charles III. By patronage Baie Goya was commissioned from the Royal Manufactory of Santa Barbara cartoons for tapestries depicting scenes of Spanish life. Goya married Josefa sister Bahia in 1775 and moved to Madrid, where in the period between 1776 and 1791 wrote 45 cartons. Cheerful, idealized scenes of rural life brought the Spanish Goya fame. In 1780 Goya was adopted at the court and painted a portrait of the king, now in the academic style of the Crucifixion and became a member of the Royal Academy. In the same year he moved to Zaragoza, to continue work on the frescoes of the Church of Nuestra Senora del Pilar. However, his paintings did not like the Baja and customers, and Goya was forced to rewrite them in a more formal manner.
Stung by the incident, he returned to Madrid, where he was commissioned to write portraits of the royal family. This was the beginning of fame and prosperity of Goya. He painted a portrait of family Osuna and painted frescoes their private chapel, as well as the walls of their suburban home. In 1786 Goya was appointed vice-director of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando. In 1789, after the death of Charles III, he became a court painter of the new king, Charles IV. With surprising speed, he wrote to the king and his wife, Queen Maria Luisa. Goya's portraits were completely deprived of flattery, and often their similarity with the original was truly a cruel, but he continued to receive orders, and his popularity grew in the yard. At the same time he wrote the charming portraits of children and beautiful women.
In 1791 Goya became acquainted with the Duchess of Alba, who became his lover and protector. He wrote to her portrait many times, two of the most famous of them - La maja desnuda (c.. 1797) and Mach-dressed (ok. 1802). He also decorated with frescoes her chateau. In 1792-1793 Goya suffered a severe illness, which resulted in lost hearing. During recovery in 1792, Goya began work on a series of etchings Caprichos (completed in 1799), a satire on the political, social and religious orders. In 1798, Charles IV commissioned Goya to paint the dome of his suburban church of San Antonio de la Florida. With amazing speed, sometimes using a sponge tied to the handles of brushes, Goya wrote the scene with more than a thousand characters, depicting St.. Anthony, blessing the sick. In 1800 he built a villa outside of Madrid, which was later called the House of the deaf. He continued to write truthful portraits of the aristocracy, intellectuals and court officials. One of the most candid portraits - a favorite image of the Queen, the Prime Minister of Don Manuel Godoy.
In 1808 Spain was occupied by Napoleon. Goya witnessed the uprising against Napoleon's troops in Madrid and the subsequent repression. After Spain was liberated, he captured these events in the two famous paintings: Mutiny on the Puerto del Sol 2 May 1808 and the shooting of Madrid rebels on the night of May 3, 1808 (both ca. 1814, Madrid, Prado). At the same time, Goya began a series of 87 etchings Disasters of War. When Ferdinand VII returned to the Spanish throne, Goya was still a court painter. His defiant naturalistic portraits of Ferdinand reveal contempt for the new King. Secluded villa, Goya worked on the paintings uprising in Puerto del Sol 2 May 1808 and the shooting of Madrid rebels on the night of May 3, 1808. He continued to do for a series of etchings Disasters of war and began another series of etchings depicting the history of bullfighting in Spain, Tavromahiya. At the same time, Goya painted the walls of his house images of nightmares, he painted portraits of his grandson Mariano, and began the latest, most bitter series of etchings Disparates.
In 1824, 78-year-old artist, unwilling to accept the policy of Ferdinand, went into voluntary exile in France. He joined other Spanish intellectuals who fled to Bordeaux, has mastered the technique of lithography and made a series dedicated to fighting bulls, bulls Bordeaux. Goya died in Bordeaux, April 16, 1828.
Even during his lifetime Goya was considered an outstanding Spanish artists. His contribution to the formation of art 19-20 centuries. huge. He was the first master, who turned in their work to current events. Etchings of Goya, customs, and exposing the evil of his time, influenced by the French artist Honore Daumier. Shining bright colors in the painting and the dramatic effects of light and shade in the schedule influenced the development of Impressionism in France, in particular Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir. Nightmares Goya paintings in the 'House of the deaf' and the full horrors of etchings Disparates had an impact on the German Expressionists.