Horatio Quintus Horatius Flaccus( Roman poet, one of the most celebrated authors in world literature.)
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Biography Horatio Quintus Horatius Flaccus
Born in 65 BC. in Venuzii (sovr. Venosa) in Apulia in southern Italy. Father of Horace, of which the poet himself speaks with enthusiasm and admiration (of the mother he did not mention) was freedman. Craft assistant manager of auctions, he earned a small estate. Wanting to capable young man received an excellent education, Horace's father had brought to Rome and entrusted to his care the well-known grammar and mentor Orbiliya Pupilla. Sam's father took the role of 'teacher', ie. person accompanying the child to school (usually, this duty was assigned to the slave). In 20 years, Horace went to Athens to complete their education. In 44 Marc Junius Brutus, one of the conspirators who killed Caesar, also arrived in Athens, ostensibly to study philosophy, in fact - to recruit among young Romans, who had studied in Greece, the officers of their future army. When Mark Antony and Octavian (the future Augustus) was opened against the 'liberators' military actions, Horace stood on the side of Brutus. At 22, he received the rank of military tribune, and was accompanied by Brutus in Asia Minor. But diehard Republicans Horace was not: for the survivor of the fateful battle of Philippi, Brutus (42 BC), . he was 'hamstrung' returned to Rome, . the more so during this time managed to lose his father and the expected estate (it was confiscated in favor of demobilized veterans),
. There was a general amnesty, and Horace managed to get the position of the scribe of the treasury.
Poems written by Horace at this time, attracted the attention of Virgil and Variya Rufus. They presented the young man's closest associate Aug. Maecenas, and in 38 BC. Horace took the last circle of friends. Patron was not only a friend, but also a patron of poets. He was awarded the eternal gratitude of Horace, by entering it in the literary and political circles in Rome, and in 33 BC. Horace received from Maecenas a small farm in the Sabine mountains, through which he no longer had to take care of the daily bread.
During this period, the policy still cared about the poet. Naturally, he joined the party of his patron, though he never trying to distance itself from old friends and Republicans. Horace was an active supporter of August, only as a result broke out between him and his former ally Marc Antony war, which ended with the victory in Stock (31 BC) and the capture of Alexandria (30 BC). Following these events, Horace made a considerable contribution to the campaign conducted by the Augustus on the political and moral rebirth of Rome.
Turning to poetry at a time of frustration after the defeat at Philippi, Horace chosen as a model of two witty and sarcastic authors: the Greek Archilochus (c.. 675 - OK. 635 BC), he borrowed the iamb, the Italians Lutsiliya (ca. 180-102 BC) - satire. The first book of Satires of Horace (he called them Sermones, ie. Talks), consisting of ten poems, written in hexameters, published about. 35 BC. After the victory of Augustus, ca. 30 BC, Horace collected another 8 satyr in the second book, having attached thereto 17 short works iambic named Epody. Then in the works of Horace was decisive. He found the amount corresponding to its current positive frame of mind, in Aeolic lyrical (ie. destined for the performance of the accompaniment) poetry beginning 6. BC, in Alcaeus and Sappho, in which he drew his inspiration and. He turned to more lightweight lyrics Anacreon, and a more rational and scientific Hellenistic poetry. Horace skillfully adapted these dimensions to the Latin language, with ease using this wizard, he and noble alcaic verse and graceful sapphic stanza, and fluid Asclepiades. In 23 BC. He has published Odes, 88 range for the metric size (from 8 to 80 lines) and tone poems, carefully spread over three books (lat. Carmina, ie. Songs, odes called them after antiquity).
In the next six years, Horace has ceased to compose lyrical (in the classical sense of the word) poem. In 20 BC. first book written in hexameters Epistles, which included 20 letters mainly philosophical, more severe form than of Satire, but it is personal and sincere. During these years, Horace number of reasons largely lost its former frivolity. He is acutely aware that youth with all its joy it leaves. In 23 BC. Patron displeased Augustus and was pushed from the position closest to his face. In 19 BC. died beloved Horace Virgil, as well as Tibull. However, in 17 BC. August Directs Horace writing the hymn in honor of the great century-old game. It finally delivered Horace fame, and he returned to lyric. When you create written in the next few years 15 odes, collected in book IV, Horace motivated by a sense that poetry can bestow upon a man immortality. Here we find the admiration of the emperor, and sometimes even flattery. Such is the inspired, brilliant 1-e poem from the book II message to the Augusta line to his request. It discusses the state of Roman poetry, and Horace defends contemporary authors, from attacks by supporters of antiquity. Time of writing the famous Messages Piso (entitled to a late tradition, Ars Poetica, ie. The art of poetry) is not established, it is not known, and then, when it was Horace refused the offer in August to take the place of his personal secretary. In 8 BC. Maecenas died, and Horace survived him only two months. He was buried on the Esquiline next patron.