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Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

( President of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (March 1990 - December 1991))

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Biography Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
photo Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
Born March 2, 1931 in the village of Privolnoye Krasnogvardeyskoe district, Stavropol Territory in a peasant family.

In 16 years (1947) for high grind corn on the combine was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor. In 1950, after graduating from high school with a silver medal, he entered the law faculty of Moscow State University. Lomonosov. Actively participated in the activities of the Komsomol organization of the University and in 1952 joined the Communist Party.

After graduation in 1955 was sent to Stavropol in the boundary prosecutor. He worked as deputy head of the department of agitation and propaganda of the Stavropol Komsomol regional committee, first secretary of the Stavropol Komsomol, then the second and first secretary of the regional committee of Komsomol (1955-1962).

In 1962, Gorbachev went to work in the Party organs. In the country at that time were the Khrushchev reforms. The bodies of the party leadership were divided into industrial and rural. There are new management structures - the territorial-production management. Party Mikhail Gorbachev's career began with the post of party organizer in the Stavropol territorial production selhozupravleniya (three rural). In 1967 he graduated (in absentia) Stavropol Agricultural Institute.

In December 1962, Gorbachev was approved by the head of the department party organizational work of the Stavropol Agricultural Regional Committee of the CPSU. In 1971, Gorbachev became a member of the CPSU Central Committee.

In November 1978, Gorbachev became secretary of the CPSU Central Committee on the agro-industrial complex, in 1979 - a candidate for membership, in 1980 - a member of the Politburo. In March 1985, Gorbachev became general secretary of the Communist Party.

1985 - landmark in the history of the state and party. Ended the era of stagnation (as now defined 'Brezhnev' period). Started it's time for change, attempts to reform the party-state body. This period in the history of the country was called 'restructuring' and associated with the idea of 'perfection of socialism'. Gorbachev began a massive anti-alcohol campaign. There were increased rates of alcohol and restricted its sale, the vineyards were mostly destroyed, giving rise to a whole new set of challenges - dramatically increased the use of liquor and various surrogates, the budget suffered significant losses. Anti-alcohol campaign was carried out in the country, has not yet experienced the shock of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. In May 1985, speaking at a party and economic asset in Leningrad, the secretary general made no secret that the pace of economic growth declined, and the slogan 'to accelerate socio-economic development'. Gorbachev received the support of his policy statement at the XXVII Congress of the CPSU (1986) and June (1987) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee.

In 1986-1987, hoping to arouse the initiative of the 'masses', Gorbachev and his supporters have embarked on the development of transparency and 'democratization' of all aspects of social life. Publicity in Bolshevik party has traditionally been seen not as the freedom of speech, as well as freedom of 'constructive' (loyal) criticism and self-criticism. However, in the perestroika years, the idea of publicity efforts of progressive journalists and supporters of radical reform, in particular, the Secretary and Politburo member Alexander Yakovlev, has evolved precisely in the freedom of speech. XIX Party Conference of the CPSU (June 1988) adopted a resolution "On public '. In March 1990, was adopted by the 'Press Law', achieving a certain level of media independence from party control.

Since 1988, full speed was the creation of action teams to support the restructuring, the Popular Front, and other vnegosudarstvennyh and non-partisan non-governmental organizations. Once started the process of democratization, and control of the party declined, many were hidden were exposed to this inter-ethnic conflicts in some parts of the USSR there have been ethnic clashes.

In March 1989, the first in the history of the Soviet Union relatively free parliamentary elections, the results of which have caused shock in the apparatus of the Party. In many regions of the elections failed secretaries of Party committees. As deputies arrived a lot of intellectuals, critically evaluate the role of the CPSU in the society. Congress of People's Deputies in May of that year showed a severe resistance to the various trends in society and in the parliamentary environment. At this congress, Gorbachev was elected chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

Gorbachev's actions triggered a wave of mounting criticism. Some criticized him for his tardiness and inconsistency in the reform, others - in haste, and all notes the contradictions of its policy. So, . adopt laws on the development of cooperatives and almost immediately - the fight against 'speculation'; laws to democratize corporate governance and at the same time - the strengthening of central planning, the laws on the reform of political system and free elections, . and immediately - on 'strengthening the role of the Party', etc.,
.

Attempts to reform itself resisted party Soviet system - the Leninist-Stalinist model of socialism. Power of Secretary General was not absolute and is largely dependent on 'hand, a' power in the Politburo. Least of all the powers of Gorbachev were limited in international affairs. With the support of Eduard Shevardnadze (Foreign Minister) and Alexander Yakovlev, Gorbachev acted aggressively and effectively. Beginning in 1985 (after 6 and a half year break) every year for meetings with Soviet leader with the U.S. presidents Ronald Reagan and then George W. Bush, presidents and prime ministers of other countries. In 1989 at the initiative of Gorbachev began the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, there was a fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany. Signature by Gorbachev in 1990 in Paris, along with heads of states and governments of other countries in Europe and the United States and Canada 'Charter for a New Europe' put an end to the Cold War end 1940 - end 1990.

However, in domestic politics, especially in economics, there are signs of a serious crisis. Paid greater shortages of food and daily goods. Since 1989, went full speed the process of disintegration of the political system of the Soviet Union. Attempts to stop this process by force (in Tbilisi, Baku, Vilnius, Riga) led to opposite results, increasing the centrifugal tendencies. Democratic leaders of the Interregional Deputy Group (Boris N. Yeltsin, Andrei Sakharov and others) collected in his support of many thousands of rallies. In the first half of 1990 almost all the Soviet republics declared their national sovereignty (RSFSR - 12 June 1990).

The summer of 1991 was prepared to sign a new treaty of alliance. The attempted coup in August 1991 not only negated the prospect of signing, but also gave a powerful impetus to the incipient collapse of the state. On December 8 the Bialowieza Forest (Belarus) met the leaders of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, during which the document was signed on the Elimination of the USSR and the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

December 25, 1991, Mr.. Mikhail Gorbachev announced the end of his activities as president of the Soviet Union and signed a decree on the transfer of management of strategic nuclear weapons to the President of Russia B.Eltsinu.Svoim recent former President of the USSR created on the basis of former research institutes of the Central Committee International Fund for socio-economic and Political Studies, . received everyday name "Gorbachev Foundation", . and who led as president.,

. In September 1992, Mr.
. Gorbachev refused to appear before the Constitutional Court of Russia, where he had been summoned to testify in the case concerning the constitutionality of the decrees of the President of Russia banning the CPSU. In response to the Constitutional Court ruled not envisaged by law to temporarily ban Gorbachev to travel abroad. An exception was made in connection with the funeral of Willy Brandt in October 1992. The move powers, and followed by them and supported by pro-government media pressure on the Gorbachev Foundation, led a wave of indignation abroad, where the former leader of the Soviet Union remained very popular.

. In the period of the Communist Party and the state, Gorbachev made a radical change in the foreign policy of the USSR
. In 1986. at the XXVII Congress of the Communist Party issued a Soviet program of building nuclear-free world by 2000. In the same year during a visit to India signed the Delhi Declaration on Principles of non-violent and weapon-free world. In 1988. in his book "Perestroika and New Thinking" introduced the concept of "new political thinking" which, in his opinion, should have become the norm in international relations. One of the major foreign policy steps Gorbachev was the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan in February 1989

. Gorbachev managed to gain sympathy and popularity in many countries, to destroy the stereotype of "evil empire" against the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War "
. In the period 1985-1988 was held 5 meetings. Gorbachev and U.S. President Reagan, during which were worked out an agreement to reduce certain types of nuclear and conventional weapons. In 1989, during a meeting with U.S. President Bush for the first time, Gorbachev said that the USSR was ready not to consider the U.S. as a military adversary. In a similar statement was made later and the American administration. Gorbachev played a big role in the unification of Germany. Finally, the Soviet Union the first time since the Second World War allowed the peoples of Eastern Europe to decide the fate of their countries, make a choice in favor of democracy and market economy.

In September 1993, Mr.. Gorbachev condemned President Yeltsin's decree dissolving the Congress of People's Deputies of Russia and the Supreme Council and the appointment of election of a new representative body - the Federal Assembly as unconstitutional. Supported the idea of so-called "zero option", envisaging mutual abolition of the President, Congress and the Supreme Council of its decisions taken during the conflict and the appointment of new simultaneous presidential and parliamentary elections.

October 3, 1993, Mr.. Yeltsin called on Moscow to withdraw troops and to regulate relations with the Parliament by peregovorov.Neodnokratno been vocal critics of radical-reformist economic policy, . leading, . his opinion, . to the impoverishment of the people, . growth of criminal capital, . inflation and unemployment,
. Advocated the restriction of autocratic President, for extending the powers of the Federal Assembly and the Government, which, according to his definition, should not be an appendage of the presidential office. Condemned the force to resolve the Chechen problem, advocated ending the war in Chechnya and has repeatedly offered himself as a mediator in negotiations for a peaceful settlement.

In 1996. Gorbachev was campaigning for the election of the President of Russia. In the first round of elections voted for him 386 thousand or 0.52% of voters have taken a vote.

In October 1999,. said at the Congress Movement "Social Democrats", which supports the initiative to establish the united Social Democratic Party and will participate in this process.


Photos of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
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  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
  • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

Photos of Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
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