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GRAHAM Toias (Graham Thomas)

( Scottish chemist.)

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Biography GRAHAM Toias (Graham Thomas)
(1805-1869)
Born December 20, 1805 in Glasgow in a family of merchant. In 1819 at the insistence of his father entered the theological faculty of the University of Glasgow. I got carried away with chemistry, I read a lot and in 1824 received a master's degree. Within four years he worked at Edinburgh University at the Department of Chemistry. In 1828 he returned to Glasgow, giving lessons of chemistry and mathematics. In 1830 he became a professor of chemistry at Anderson University in Glasgow, in 1837 - professor of chemistry at University College London. In the same year was elected a member of the Royal Society of London, in 1842 - the president of the English Chemical Society. From 1855 and until his death worked in the laboratory of the Mint.
Graham's works are devoted to the diffusion of gases and liquids, colloidal chemistry, chemistry of polybasic acids. First studies were carried out of the University of Edinburgh and related absorption of gases by liquids. Investigating the diffusion of gases through the porous walls, Graham in 1831 formulated the law: the rate of diffusion of gases is inversely proportional to the square root of its density. Engaged in the study of oxidation of phosphorus and found that the process is slowed down in the presence of minute quantities of certain gases. This discovery was the first example of 'negative catalysis' (the term 'catalysis' has introduced five years later Berzelius). Investigating the conditions for obtaining phosphates, phosphoric acid Graham identified a new type, called its meta-phosphoric. Work Graham, devoted to ortho-, meta-and pyrophosphoric acids, published in 1833, forced to reconsider the hydrogen theory of acids, as proposed by H. Davy, and laid the foundation of the theory of polybasic acids,. By extending the research methods gas liquids, including mortars, Graham opened the osmotic effect (though the laws of osmosis were formulated 20 years Pfeffer). Graham's idea of separation of substances on crystalloids and colloids. The first form persistent solutions and crystallize, the latter gives unstable solutions and easy to coagulate, forming a gelatinous precipitate. This work laid the foundations of Colloid Chemistry. Continuing the study of gases, Graham in the late 1860's discovered the phenomenon of occlusion - the absorption of gases by microscopic cavities in metals.

Graham died in London on September 11, 1869.


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GRAHAM Toias (Graham Thomas), photo, biography GRAHAM Toias (Graham Thomas)  Scottish chemist., photo, biography
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