John Dowland (Dowland John)( English composer and lutanist Elizabethan)
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Biography John Dowland (Dowland John)
Famous for his first songwriting. Born in 1563, apparently in London. Early successes in the game on the lute and singing attracted the attention of young musician Sir Henry Kobema, the English ambassador in Paris in 1579-1583. Dowland lived in Paris, where he was employed by the new envoy, Sir Edward Stafford, but soon returned to his homeland, where he married and earned a bachelor of music at Oxford University. Abroad, he converted to Catholicism and trying to get a place at court, felt all the inconvenience of their situation. At the invitation of the Duke of Brunswick Dowland again went to the continent. He wanted to see Italy and learn from madrigalista Luca Marenzio; received his salary was enough for a trip to the south - in Venice and Florence. Together with a group of English Catholics who had left their homeland, Dowland remained in Florence, abandoning the intention to get to Rome, where expected to meet with the teacher. Still, not wanting to be found guilty of treason and pining for his homeland, he eventually returned to England and took her religion. Several works for lute Dowland have been printed without his consent to the collection of Barley New Book Tabs (New Booke of Tableture, 1596), in 1597 the composer decided to publish their own collections of songs. His first book of songs or arias (First Booke of Songes or Ayres) for 16 years ran into five editions, in 1600 a second book (Second Booke), and in 1603 - Book III (Third Booke). Characteristically, in his 'arias' melody is entrusted only to the upper voice, but not distributed among the voices, as in the madrigal. In 1604 Dowland created his instrumental compositions Tears (Lacrimae), and two years later translated the Mikrologa (Micrologus) Andreas Ornitoparka. Last work Dowland musical harmony lonely wanderer (A Pilgrimes Solace) was completed in 1612 - at the same time in a poem by Henry Picha British Minerva (Minerva Britanna) depicted the composer's gray-haired old man, . not recognized by fellow,
. In October 1612 Dowland was appointed one of the royal lutenists and has since participated in the court concerts and masquerades.
Years 1598-1606 composer spent at the court of King Christian IV; in 1622-1623 he made a short trip to Pomerania, where in the service of Philip Julius, Duke Volgastskogo. Dowland died in London on 20 and 21 January 1626.