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James H. (James Henry)

( American novelist and critic, one of the greatest novelists and theorists of English literature.)

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Biography James H. (James Henry)

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(1843-1916)
. Born April 15, 1843 in New York, was the second son of Henry James, philosopher, theologian, known svedenborgiantsa, and younger brother of the psychologist and philosopher William James (James)
. Childhood and early youth of the writer were in an unusually creative atmosphere. In the family read a lot, went to the theater, discussing the rapidly read and seen, in a house frequented by famous friends of James Sr., in t.ch. Carlyle and Robert W. Emerson. Family of James had a solid income and periodically lived in Europe. The boy has changed several schools, worked with a tutor, but his education was not less influenced by walking, reading, visiting parks and museums in Europe, monitored by local customs.

In 1861, when extinguishing a fire, James suffered a serious spine injury. This is 'awful, though invisible injury' prevented him from fighting on the side of northerners in the civil war was the cause of painful experiences. In 1862 he enrolled at Harvard Law School, but soon dropped out and began by writing. In 1865 in 'Atlantic Monthly' ( 'Atlantic Monthly') was printed first signed his story.

In 1869, James went to the first independent trip to Europe, first in London, then on the European continent. Conducted during the year abroad gave James 'internationalist theme': the clash of Old and New Worlds, usually expressed in the enchantment of naive Americans Europe.

Returning to Cambridge (USA), James published his first novel, The guardian and wards (Watch and Ward, 1870). In 1871 in 'Atlantic Monthly' published his first major novel ardent pilgrim (A Passionate Pilgrim). In the early stories of James, usually depicting American life and customs, different influence Charles Dickens, Balzac, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Dzh.Eliot. From Boston, where James has written many critical articles, short stories and book reviews, in 1872 he moved to Europe. The next two years mostly spent in Italy, working on novel Roderick Hudson (Roderick Hudson, 1875).

In 1875, James moved to Paris, where he brought his friendship with Turgenev, who taught him that in fiction the character is more important than plot, for an interesting character on its own plot. Turgenev, James entered the circle of writers, which included G. Flaubert, Maupassant G.de, E. Zola, A. Daudet, and Goncourt E..

In 1876, James emigrated to England. He lived in London for twenty years, from time to time navedyvayas on the continent for the material to travel notes.

In 1881 James visited the United States, where once again came in 1882 after the death of parents. In 1880 published a novel Washington Square (Washington Square, 1881), novels Bostonians (The Bostonians, 1886), The Princess Casamassima (The Princess Casamassima, 1886), Tragic Muse (The Tragic Muse, 1890). Although staging (1891) of his novel, The American (The American, 1877) was quite successful, drama Domvil Guy (Guy Domville, 1895) was booed and removed from the scene.

In 1897, James bought in the seaside town of Paradise Lemhaus a small villa, where he shared time between writing and guests. In the last years of his life James led an extremely high life.

In the early 20 in. James came in the final and most fruitful period of his life, for which created three large novel - Wings of the Dove (The Wings of the Dove, 1902), The Ambassadors (The Ambassadors, 1903) and The Golden Bowl (The Golden Bowl, 1904). In 1904 he traveled to the U.S.. The result was a collection of travel essays Scenes of American life (The American Scene, 1907), which contains a fairly pessimistic analysis of American life. Between 1910 and 1914, James has completed two volumes of his planned five-volume autobiography - A little boy and the other (A Small Boy and Others, 1913) and Notes son and brother (Notes of a Son and Brother, 1914). He began to write two novels - Sense of the past (The Sense of the Past) and in the ivory tower (The Ivory Town), as well as a new volume of autobiography (Middle years - The Middle Years), but did not manage to complete their. In 1915, James took British citizenship in protest against U.S. neutrality in World War. At the end of that year, received from King George V Order of Merit. James died in London on February 28, 1916, his ashes buried in the family grave in Cambridge (pc. Mass.).

James was one of the first writers consciously experimenting with literary form, he sought a new way to see and depict the life, using new techniques of narration. The novel, he wrote in his famous essay The Art of Prose (The Art of Fiction), must satisfy a single request - to be 'interesting'. According to the most general definition, a novel - it is 'personal, direct impression of life in this first and it is blshaya or mnshaya value determined by the strength impression'. However, under the 'life', or experience, James realized 'imprint left on the minds'. Therefore, he preferred not to describe the event, but someone's impression of him. He developed technique dramatizirovaniya thoughts hero has left a deep imprint on the history of the novel.

James wrote 20 novels, a dozen novels, over one hundred short stories, autobiographical cycle, many essays, critical essays, biographies, travel notes, and thousands of letters. For the first period of his work, . completed novel Portrait of a Woman (The Portrait of a Lady, . 1881), . characteristic of the writer's attention to the international theme, . rather complicated content, . and for America, . and Europe had for him as a positive, . and negative qualities,
. James's novels can be considered an attempt to combine the positive aspects of these two worlds. James failed, and despite a great sense of humor, his perception of life was essentially a tragic. In the novella Daisy Miller (Daisy Miller), as well as in the novels Roderick Hudson and The American Americans suffer defeat in a European environment. In his novel The Europeans (The Europeans, 1878), on the contrary, the Europeans fail in America.

In the second period of creativity (1882-1900), James refused to international themes, and even stopped at the time to write novels and stories, turning to drama. However, in the theater waiting for his failure, and he returned to prose, using dramatic techniques mastered. He showed great skill in building living 'scenes' through dialogue, which was not just talk the actors, but also revealed something lurking either pumped anxiety. The first two novels of the period devoted to the reformers. As Bostonians, special attention is paid to environmental impacts that can be explained by the influence of James of writers such as Flaubert, Zola, and Daudet. Environment, this time to London, took a central place in the novel The Princess Casamassima. This work in which James outlines his views on socialism, is considered his best 'political' novel.

James took and ghost stories (Jolly Corner - The Jolly Corner, Friends of our friends - The Friends of the Friends) and painful trials of childhood and adolescence in what she knew Maizie - What Maisie Knew and difficult age - The Awkward Age. These themes have found expression in the famous novel The Turn of the Screw (The Turn of the Screw, . 1898), . embodiment of his theory of horror stories: the terrible need only hint, . without having to open, . allowing the reader to imagine the evil, . since then, . he imagines, . will be much worse,
.

The second period belong to two small masterpiece - Aspern Letters (The Aspern Papers, 1888) and The Beast in the increasingly (The Beast in the Jungle, 1903), although the second story is often referred to as the last period. Both of these works involve an important theme for James: immorality, from the following over-commitment to the ideas or ideals - literary, artistic or metaphysical

. In the third, . most fruitful period of creativity (1900-1904), James returned to the international theme, . creating his best novels: Wings of the Dove, . The Ambassadors and The Golden Bowl, . in which he brilliantly used the possibility of symbolism, . dramatically complicate the style and moral issues,
. Roman ambassadors demonstrates the validity of narrative technique of James. The content of the novel refracted in the minds of the hero; events - the essence of his perception of the topic - the intrinsic value of understanding delivered this perception. Gold cup is often considered the most difficult piece of James. This novel is a study of moral suffering, with a masterful depiction of anguish that accompany all significant human relationships.

Critical work of James French poets and novelists (French Poets and Novelists, 1878) and Notes on the novelist (Notes on Novelists, 1914) differ profound insight. Particularly noteworthy are his studies of creativity George Sand, George Eliot and Balzac, as well as essays on Turgenev, Trollope, E., Daudet, Maupassant, P. Loti and G.D 'Annunzio. It is believed that the monograph Hawthorne (Hawthorn, 1879) says more about the James, than about the subject, but it accurately identified strengths and weaknesses Hawthorne, the novelist.





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