Born February 2, 1882 in Ratgare, a suburb of Dublin. He studied at the Jesuit boarding school (this period of his life found subsequently reflected in the portrait of the artist in his youth), . but in oriental faculty of University College Dublin has known financial difficulties, . pursued him and in his mature years,
Rebellious environment contributed to the consolidation rebellious mood Joyce
. However, it did not attract political and literary movement, has as its aim the liberation of Ireland. He was attracted to European culture, which contribute much to his exceptional gifts as a writer. In 1902, Joyce
left the family, dropped out and under the pretext of studying medicine went to Paris.
In 1904, Joyce
returned to the continent - this time with Nora Barnakl, who bore him a son and daughter (she officially becomes his wife in 1931). For many years, Joyce
taught English in Trieste and Zurich - the ground of his voluntary exile, became legendary after which came too late glory. Joyce
's creative development, as well as many other writers of the time, helped E. Pound, American poet - he assisted in obtaining various grants and Joyce
brought to the people who helped the writer to settle in Paris. Joyce
survived World War I in Zurich, there he and his wife, son and grandson moved to the beginning of World War II. In the last published letter, dated December 20, 1940, Joyce
thanked the Mayor for giving his family refuge with restraint and dignity of someone who knows his own worth and their place in the literature 20 in. Joyce
died in Zurich on Jan. 13, 1941.
The first book saw the light of Joyce
became poetic collection of 36 short poems of Chamber Music (Chamber Music, 1904). Indeed, . is a highly aesthetically poetry: on the expert and connoisseur William Patera, . Raphaelites, . P. Verlaine ruled by spells of Elizabethan poetry, poems are graceful and ethereal, . they completely absent attachment to persons and circumstances, . What is unthinkable without a mature work of Joyce
. But with the technical side they are faultless, and although a substantial range of these is a narrow one, all is more than compensated by the exquisite, almost feminine poetic feeling. Sam Joyce
, disparagingly called a collection of 'handfuls pustyashnyh odes', published, however, then another, where the poems are very few, - apples for a penny apiece (Pomes Penyeach, 1927).
Collection of 15 sketches or stories Dubliners (Dubliners) was released in 1914. Some of them are minor, in others, Joyce
portrays the inhabitants of Dublin and the urban situation. Portrait of the Artist as a Young (A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, 1916) is largely autobiographical, as is indicated by the title of the novel. This product is processed completely raw material surviving fragment of which was published after his death, in 1944, called Stephen Hero (Stephen Hero). Written almost entirely in his younger years, Portrait demonstrated the plasticity and cold analysis. In this respect it greatly exceeds the Exiles (Exiles, 1914) - also largely autobiographical play.
But a prominent place in the history of literature, Joyce
won primarily due to Ulysses (Ulysses, 1922), along with the cycle of novels of M. Proust In Search of Lost Time most innovative product of 20 in. Working on Dubliners, Joyce
made a sketch, where a Mr. Hunter, a whole day wandering around Dublin, causing ironic association with the hero of Homer's Odyssey. According to one theory, which is shared by the Joyce
, the hero of the ancient epic - Semite, and Joyce
, to some extent, this myth is connected with the legend of the Eternal Gide. So, Mr. Hunter became Leopold Bloom, . Jewish merchant, . and everything happened to him one day in the city, . for him both native, . and strange, . the basis for carefully recreating the atmosphere of Dublin life in the 'Bloom Day' - June 16, 1904,
. This is not too similar to its prototype Ulysses Joyce
gives Telemachus in the person of Stephen Dedalusa: he descends from the pages of picture in order to symbolically fulfill the role of a son seeking his father. This topic Joyce
, apparently, considered important in the Odyssey and enthusiastically introduced her to the novel. Yet Ulysses, although conceived as a complex multifaceted work, is primarily a monumental study of language features.
Ulysses - is a recreation of one day. Finnegans Wake (Finnegans Wake, 1939), known for a long time as the current work (Work in Progress), Joyce
wrote in the past 15 years of life. This is a detailed account of one night or, more precisely, on the walk of a limited mind of a sleeping man in the infinity of the universe. Finnegans Wake - very long book, written language, invented in the throes of Joyce
, this language refers to the ordinary as well as unconscious mental processes - with conscious. The book can not be read in the usual sense of the word. However, it is infinitely interesting - especially for writers - as a monument to a unique titanic attempts to introduce new forms of language