JOHNSON Samuel (Johnson Samuel)( English lexicographer, literary critic and essayist.)
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Biography JOHNSON Samuel (Johnson Samuel)
Born September 18, 1709 in Lichfield (Staffordshire). Entered the local grammar school, then school in Storbridzhe. He worked in his father's bookstore, has not yet entered October 31, 1728 at Pembroke College, Oxford University - apparently an inheritance. After 13 months the money ran out, and, after two dismal years in a bookstore, he defined a teacher in grammar school, Market Bosworth. After a trip to Birmingham to a classmate Hector Johnson wrote his first (lost) a series of essays for local newspapers and the first book - translated Travels in Abyssinia (Voyage to Abissinia) monk Lobo (1735), . and also met his future wife, . Elizabeth Porter, . married a lady of forty-five years,
. Her husband soon died, and July 19, 1735 Johnson and Mrs. Porter were married. On the legacy left by the deceased, Johnson took a house in Edayle, near Lichfield, and opened it to school, but, despite support from local residents (young David Garrick was among his pupils), the school had to close.
In 1737, armed with letters of recommendation, Johnson and Garrick went for good luck in London. Garrick soon lucky, and Johnson had with his only unfinished tragedy, Irene (Irene), luck did not smile. Finally in 1738 he found work in 'Dzhentlmenz Magazine', the most serious if the journal. In May of that year, the publisher of the journal E. Cave, published in London - the first significant work of Johnson, the processing of the third Satire Juvenal. Johnson edited and himself gave reports of parliamentary debates, most often fragmentary materials and under assumed names, because parliament is prohibited to broadcast the debates.
In 'Dzhentlmenz Magazine' Johnson worked until 1744 inclusive. In 1745, he proposed a new edition of Shakespeare, but the project failed. In 1746, Johnson began to create the Dictionary of the English Language (A Dictionary of the English Language), and in 1747 released the dictionary plan, the author dedicated it, as agreed, Lord Chesterfield. In the same year became director of the Garrick Theater 'Drury Lane', and this event was marked by the brilliant staging Drury Leynskogo prologue (Drury Lane Prologue) Johnson. Then again reached hackwork, . but in 1749 put Garrick, Irene, . only play Johnson (box-office success and failure in criticism), . and at the same time the writer has known the greatest success on the poetic career - came vanity of human desires (The Vanity of Human Wishes), . Last processing satires Juvenal,
In 1750, Johnson began publishing his most famous magazine 'п=я-п+п¦п¦п¦я-' ( 'Rambler'), published twice a week until the death of his wife of the writer (March 17, 1752). In 1755, after a delay on the part of Lord Chesterfield, finally appeared Dictionary. On the front page of the author was named Master of Arts - This degree was just awarded him the University of Oxford. In 1758 started publishing the magazine 'Aydler' ( 'Idler'), the seriousness of the inferior 'п=я-п+п¦п¦п¦я-я¬', and Johnson thought that the time has come for the long-planned edition of Shakespeare.
In 1758 at the age of 89 years of Johnson's mother died, to find the money for the funeral, he hastened to print his only novel, Rasselas, the Prince of Abyssinian (Rasselas, the Prince of Abyssinia). Depressing and lonely have lived next four years, although since 1762 the writer and received a royal pension of 300 pounds.
In June 1763 in a bookstore with Davis, Johnson met the young James Boswell. The following year, with a constellation of other celebrities Johnson founded the 'Club' (often referred to as the 'Literary Club'). In 1765 the writer received a doctorate in law from Trinity College Dublin and in the same year released the eight-edition of Shakespeare. Between 1770 and 1775 there were four pamphlet in defense of Tory, which was followed by doctoral degree from Oxford University. Later the group booksellers, which Johnson has successfully helped councils, asked him to write the foreword to an anthology of English poets, from Dzh.Miltona and ending in the mid-18. Johnson could not hold out against such a proposal, and one of his major works were the Preface (Prefaces, 1779-1781); in a revised form - Lives of the English poets (Lives of the English Poets). These are 56 articles, depending on the interest of Johnson to the poet, they range from the presentation of biographical information and critical analysis of major works to a comprehensive study of creativity (Milton, Dryden, Pope, Swift and Addison).
Johnson died in London on December 13, 1784, is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Johnson's popularity was even half a century after his death: in 1787 edition of the works appeared in 11 volumes (not logged Dictionary, Shakespeare materials and occasional publications), in 1825 there were still 8 volumes. They admired B. Scott and Dzh.G.Bayron, but tastes change, and the Whig TB Macaulay in a wide, brilliant and fierce denouncing krokerovskogo edition of Life of Johnson, written by Boswell (1831), in the face of Johnson branded the Tories. A century of Johnson valued lower than his conversation in the transfer of Boswell, although 'п=я-п+п¦п¦п¦я-', 'Aydler', Rasselas and the Lives of English poets repeatedly reprinted.
From the poetic works of Johnson retained interest only poems London and vanity of human desires, theatrical prologues and a few small things. Johnson's essay, especially in the 'п=я-п+п¦п¦п¦я-п¦' and 'Aydlere', apparently following the examples of D. Addison and R. Steele, marked by a remarkable personality, depth judgments (about the genre of the novel, on Milton), the art of literary portrait.
Johnson's Dictionary - Two huge tome - nearly a century remained out of competition. The greatest contribution to Johnson's lexicography - an immense number of quotations, clarifying usage. In the history of English poets worth reading all the articles, but today the biggest impression left autobiography A. Cowley, Johnson, commenting on the Metaphysical poets.