Benjamin Disraeli (Disraeli Benjamin)( British statesman, Prime Minister of Great Britain, the writer.)
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Biography Benjamin Disraeli (Disraeli Benjamin)
Born in London on December 21, 1804. His grandfather, D'Izraeli was Sephardic Jew, in 1748 he emigrated from Ferrara (Italy) in England, where he made a successful career as a merchant and stockbroker. Only his son Isaac, a famous writer, in 1802 married Mary Basevi, the daughter of another Jewish immigrant from Italy. Benjamin was their eldest son. In 1817, after a quarrel with the community of Sephardic synagogue in London, Isaac, baptized his four children. Benjamin received his education in Blekhite near London and in Hayem Hall in Epping
. At age 17, Disraeli was sent to one of the City of London law firms, . but felt the legal profession is too banal and decided to get rich faster way, . first (1824) by taking part in a failed stock market speculation, . and then (1825-1826), . unsuccessfully, . trying to organize, together with his father's friend and publisher John Murray release of a new daily newspaper,
. In 1826 he published a novel, Vivian Gray (Vivian Grey), which was perceived by those who knew Murray and the story of his journalistic failure, a joke and thankless satire. As a result of all this activity Disraeli was left with a lot of debts and questionable reputation, deliverance from which it took years.
In 1830-1831 Disraeli made a 16-month journey through the Mediterranean and Middle East. This is not only inspired him to create new novels, colored local color, but also laid the foundation for its future relationship to the imperial policy of Great Britain. Upon his return, he hired an apartment in London - his family moved to Bradenhem (county of Buckinghamshire), he was introduced his friend, writer E.Bulver-Lytton, in the saloons of Lady Blessington, and other literary figures, was living in high society. In 1833 he became the mistress of one of the most fashionable women in London - Henrietta, wife of Lord Francis Sykes, this relationship is literally exhausted him, taking away not only time but also all the means. In 1836 he was forced to break with her. Nevertheless, her image was captured in his novel Henrietta Temple (Henrietta Temple, 1836), partly based on personal experiences of the author. Among other novels, written in 1830-ies - Young Duke (The Young Duke) and Contarini Fleming (Contarini Fleming).
During his travels around the Mediterranean Disraeli decided that his true calling - a policy. Twice, in 1832 and 1834, he participated in the elections in the district of High Wycombe as antivigsky radical, with the support of the Tories, but both times lost. In early 1835 he became a member of the Tory party and as such his candidature for election in Taunton, but again lost. In 1837 he also became a member of Parliament for Maidstone. His first speech failed. Even during the elections in Taunton, he took part in the quarrel with ndy 'Connell, and Irish members of Parliament to avenge their leader, shouting voices silenced Disraeli. In 1839 he married Mary Ann Evans, widow of William Lewis, who along with Disraeli represented Maidstone. She was older than Disraeli in 12 years and was characterized by flaky, but was very devoted to her husband and, moreover, had an annual income of 4000 pounds and a house in London.
In 1841, after 11 years in opposition, the Tory party finally came to power, but Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel is not offered Disraeli place in the new government. Ironically, such a move is prompted by a ball Peel, Lord Stanley, who later became a patron and closest political ally Disraeli. Over the next few years, Disraeli gradually moved away from Peel, and with the support of a small group of young, romantically-minded Tories, known as the 'Young England', began to create his own concept of the Conservative Party. The best expression of his ideas found in the two most famous of his novels - Coningsby (Coningsby, 1844) and Sybil (Sybil, 1845), although the theory has been scheduled yet in the pamphlet Protect the British Constitution (Vindication of the English Constitution, 1836)
. Disraeli thought, . that the Tories have always been a truly national party of England, . but the Whigs could win victories thanks to an alliance with dissenterami, . Irish Catholics and Scottish Presbyterians and establish oligarchic rule of the Venetian style, . which the power of the crown, . aristocracy and the people to cure them,
. Official Conservative Party under the leadership of Peel was, according to Disraeli, slightly better Whig. The solution, he believed, lay in the union of the old aristocracy and the rural gentry with loyal Whigs impoverished people. In accordance with this theory Disraeli approve of the Chartists, supported by factory laws, and since 1848 opposed the Peel.
All these years alone have seen in Disraeli the adventurer and opportunist, others viewed it at best as eccentric personality, ideas which might interest a few people. However, in 1846, . when Peel after the famine in Ireland and the government crisis announced its intention to introduce the principle of free trade for grain and repeal the protectionist Corn Laws, . that country gentry considered necessary, . Time Disraeli finally struck,
. Speaking as an assistant of Lord George Bentinck, formally head of the supporters of protectionism in the Tory party, Disraeli was their real leader. Unable to secure the repeal of the Corn Laws, they forced Peel to resign, and forever leave his post. The Prime Minister is the leader of the Whig Lord John Russell (July 1846). Virtually the entire Cabinet Peel followed their leader and formed the core group known as the 'saws'.
Protectionist sentiment in the ranks of the Tories clearly not enough talented people, and after the death of Bentinck in 1848 Disraeli became their leader in the House of Commons, and Stanley led the party. The money borrowed family Bentinck, Disraeli bought the estate Hyuenden near High Wycombe, and thus became a landowner. He was also elected member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire, keeping this place until the end of life.
Tories were in power as a minority government for 10 months in 1852 and 18 months in 1858-1859. The Prime Minister was both times, Lord Derby, the Finance Minister - Benjamin Disraeli. But they existed only by the grace of the opposition, and any combination of opponents could easily and at any time deprive them of power. Policy of this period was determined by Palmerston, who admired Disraeli.
For Disraeli it was a time of frustration. In 1847 he published a novel Tancred (Tancred), which came after a 23-year break in his literary work. In 1853 it was completed biography of Lord George Bentinck, and later Disraeli had little interest in literature. In 1865, immediately after the election victory, died Palmerston. His successor, Russell introduced a Reform Bill, which has split the party and led to the Tory Government in power, so the 1866 Derby and Disraeli in the third time to form a cabinet. Despite the traditional hostility of the Tory parliamentary reform, Disraeli had long believed that the expansion of suffrage should not be the monopoly of the Whigs. He and Darby decided to seek the confidence of the country through a partial reform. In the original version of the proposed bill contained many anti-democratic amendments, but Gladstone managed to get rid of them, but the Tory leader chose to accept the changes to stay in power. Adopted Reform Act of 1867 went much further than expected, most Tories. For him the right to vote was granted to homeowners in small towns and villages, and the number of voters increased almost double. At the beginning of 1868 Derby, exhausted by frequent attacks of gout, has resigned, and Disraeli became Prime Minister.
He has held this position for long. Gladstone had seized the initiative and introduced to Parliament a series of resolutions against the Irish Church. Election autumn of 1868 brought him a landslide victory. Before the resignation of Disraeli refused granted by him to a peerage, and Queen Victoria, at his request given the title of his wife, who became Viscountess Beaconsfield. Four years later, in 1872, she died of cancer. Disraeli grieved at the loss. There were financial problems, but thanks to an inheritance of 30 thousand pounds received from admirers of his talent, as well as the generosity of a wealthy Yorkshire landowner's financial difficulties were overcome.
Starting from 1868, within six years, Gladstone was Prime Minister. We can say that the impact of Disraeli in this period in the formation of the Conservative Party was so strong that many of its features have remained unchanged to this day. He reorganized the activities of the entire party apparatus, declared that the pride of the empire, especially the Indian part of it, is one of the pillars of the Conservative Party - as opposed to gladstonovskoy concept of 'low-England'. He preached a policy of social reform, housing, factory and labor legislation, and besides - health legislation. Finally, in contrast to Gladstone, were favored foreign policy based on Christian morals and the rights of nations, it supported the principle of conservation of British interests in a spirit of uncompromising nationalism palmerstonovskom.
In 1873 and 1874 success, left the Liberals. In 1874 Gladstone dissolved Parliament, and the first time since the 1841 election brought the Conservatives a majority in the House of Commons. Disraeli's six-year premiership was marked by a number of achievements. In 1875 Interior Minister Sir Richard a cross with the support of Disraeli, a number of important social reforms. Urban slums were cleared, enacted important legislation on public health and the law on trade unions; enacted factory legislation. At the end of the year Disraeli bought shares of the Suez Canal from entangled in the financial affairs of the Egyptian Khedive. In early 1876 he held a bill to proclaim Queen Victoria "Empress of India '. In the summer of that year due to ill health was compelled to withdraw from the House of Commons and took the title Earl of Beaconsfield. In the next two years in politics Disraeli dominated 'Eastern question'. He sought to keep the way to India, to prevent Russia to destroy the Ottoman Empire and at the same time to strengthen British influence in the region. This is completely contrary to Gladstone's belief that the Turkish rule in the Balkans been so diabolical that it could not justify any reference to British interests.
Personal animosity between the two leaders reached a glow, who had no parallel in the history of Great Britain. At times it seemed that war with Russia is inevitable, and when Disraeli ordered the Navy to go to Constantinople, the Minister inostrannnyh Secretary, Lord Derby resigned. Ultimately, however, and Disraeli was able to preserve peace and to meet the interests of Britain, and in the process, including the island of Cyprus in the British possessions.
At the Berlin Congress of 1878, which met to resolve the 'eastern question', he called the admiration of Bismarck, on his return to London, Disraeli not sinning against the truth stated that he had brought "peace with honor '. He had declined to the queen of the title of Duke, but received the Order of the Garter.
The last period of his premiership was not so successful. Military setbacks in South Africa and India nearly discredited the policy of imperialism. The crisis in the finance and agriculture multiplies the general discontent. In the elections of 1880 the Conservatives suffered a crushing defeat, but Disraeli boldly announced his intention to retain its leadership in the party. Then he returned to his literary work and wrote his last novel, Endymion (Endymion) (his penultimate novel, Lothar, Lothair, was published in 1870).
Disraeli died April 19, 1881, and Queen Victoria personally laid flowers on his grave. Gladstone did not find the strength to take part in the funeral.