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Charles Dickens (Dickens Charles)

( One of the most famous English novelists, the famed creator of the brilliant comic characters and social critic.)

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Biography Charles Dickens (Dickens Charles)
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(1812-1870)
. John Huff, Charles Dickens was born February 7, 1812 in Lendporte near Portsmouth
. In 1805 his father, John Dickens (1785/1786-1851), the youngest son of the butler and housekeeper at Crewe Hall (Staffordshire), received a clerkship in the financial management of the naval department. In 1809 he married Elizabeth Barrow (1789-1863) and was appointed to Portsmouth Shipyard. Charles was the second of eight children. In 1816, John Dickens was sent to Chatham (Kent). By 1821 he had had five children. Read Charles taught the mother, for some time, he attended primary school from nine to twelve years, went to regular school. Precocious, he avidly read the entire home library of cheap editions.
In 1822, John Dickens was transferred to London. Parents of six children in dire need lived in Camden Town. Charles stopped going to school, he had to be moved in mortgage silver spoons, to sell the family library, serve as a gofer. In twelve years he worked for six shillings a week at the factory polish to Hangerford-Sterz the Strand. He worked there for a little over four months, but this time it seemed to him a painful, hopeless eternity and aroused the determination to break out of poverty. February 20, 1824 his father was arrested for debt and imprisoned Marshalsi. Receiving a small inheritance, he paid the debts and 28 May the same year was released. About two years, Charles attended a private school called the Academy Wellington House.

Working junior clerk in one of the lawyers' offices, Charles began to study shorthand, preparing themselves for the activities of a newspaper reporter. By November 1828 he became a freelance reporter court Doctors Kommonz. To his vosemnadtsatiletiyu Dickens received a library card at the British Museum and began assiduously to replenish their education. In early 1832 he became a reporter for 'Parliamentary mirror' ( 'The Mirror of Parliament') and 'True san' ( 'The True Sun'). Twenty young man quickly select among hundreds of regulars reporter gallery of the Commons.

Love Dickens to a bank manager's daughter, Mary Bidnell, strengthened his ambition. But the family Bidnellov not fed to a simple arrangement of the reporter, whose father had to sit in a debtors' prison. After a trip to Paris 'to complete the formation of' Mary cooled to his admirer. During the previous year, he began to write fiction essays about the life and character types in London. The first of them appeared in the 'Monthly Magazine' ( 'The Monthly Magazine') in December 1832. Four of the following came in during January - August 1833, the latter was signed by the pseudonym Boz, nicknamed the younger brother of Dickens, Moses. Now, Dickens was a regular reporter for 'Morning Chronicle' ( 'The Morning Chronicle'), the newspaper that published reports on significant events in England. In January 1835 Dzh.Hogart, publisher of 'Evening Chronicle' ( 'The Evening Chronicle'), asked Dickens to write a series of essays on urban life. Hogarth's literary connections - his father-in Dzh.Tomson was a friend of R. Burns, and he himself - another W. Scott and his advisor in legal matters - made a deep impression on the young writer. Early spring of that year he became engaged to Catherine Hogarth. February 7, 1836, to dvadtsatichetyrehletiyu Dickens, all of his essays, in t.ch. several previously unpublished works, came out a separate publication, entitled Essays Bosa (Sketches by Boz). In essays, . often not fully thought out and somewhat frivolous, . already seen the talent novice author, in which affected almost all further Dickensian motifs: the streets of London, . courts and lawyers, . prison, . Christmas, . Parliament, . policy, . snobs, . sympathy for the poor and oppressed,
.

For this publication was offered Chapman and Hall to write a story in twenty editions of the comic prints of famous cartoonist R. Seymour. Dickens objected, . Notes that the Nimrod, . theme of which served as London's hapless adventure athletes, . already pall, but instead he offered to write about the club and insisted cranks, . that he was not commenting on illustrations by Seymour, . and he made engravings to the text,
. The publishers agreed, and on April 2 was released first issue Pickwick. For two days before Charles and Catherine were married and settled in a bachelor apartment Dickens. First reactions were cool, and the sale did not promise much hope. Even before the appearance of the second issue of suicide Seymour, and the whole idea was threatened. Dickens himself found a young artist HN Brown, who became known under the pseudonym Fiz. The number of readers has grown, the end of the posthumous publication of Pickwick Papers (published from March 1836 to November 1837), each issue differed in the amount of forty thousand copies of.

Posthumous Pickwick Papers (The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club) represent a tangled comic epic. Its hero, Samuel Pickwick, - is irrepressible Don Quixote, plump and rosy, who is accompanied by a clever servant, Sam Weller, Sancho Panza of the common people of London. Avail consecutive episodes of Dickens can provide a number of scenes from the life of England and use all kinds of humor - from slapstick to high comedy, richly flavored satire. If Pickwick and does not have enough distinct plot, . to be called a novel, . it, . certainly, . than many novels, the charm of happy and joyful mood, . and the plot it can be traced not worse, . than in many other works of the same vague genre,
.

Dickens refused to work in the 'Chronicle' and the offer of R. Bentley to head a new monthly magazine, 'Bentley's Miscellany'. The first issue was released in January 1837, a few days before the birth of their first child Dickens, Charles, Jr.. In the February issue appeared early chapters of Oliver Twist (Oliver Twist; completed in March 1839) launched a writer, when Pickwick was written only half. Not finished Oliver, Dickens set to Nicholas Nickleby (Nicholas Nickleby; April 1838 - October 1839), the next series of twenty editions for Chapman and Hall. During this period he also wrote the libretto of comic opera, farce and the two published a book about the life of the famous clown Grimaldi.

From Dickens Pickwick descended to the dark world of terror, tracing in Oliver Twist (1838) Maturing orphans - from the workhouse to the criminal slums of London. Although the burly Mr. Bumble, and even thieves Feigin amusing, in a novel dominated by a sinister, satanic atmosphere. In Nicholas Nickleby (1839) mixed gloom Oliver and sunlight Pickwick.

In March 1837 Dickens moved to a four-story house in Doughty Street, 48. Here were born his daughter, Mary and Kate, and here died of his Sister-, sixteen, Mary, to whom he was very attached. In this house the first time he hosted D. Forster, theater critic of the newspaper 'Examiner', who became his lifelong friend, adviser on literary matters, executor and first biographer. With Forster, Dickens became acquainted with Browning, Tennyson and other writers. In November 1839 Dickens rented for a period of twelve years of house? 1 at Devonshire Terrace. With increasing prosperity and literary fame in strength and position in society Dickens. In 1837 he was elected a member of the club 'Garrick', in June 1838 - a member of the famous club 'Athenaeum'.

Sporadic friction with Bentley forced Dickens in February 1839 to abandon work in 'Almanac'. The next year, all his books have been concentrated in the hands of Chapman and Hall, . with the assistance of which he began publishing a weekly threepenny 'Clock Mr Humphrey', . which were printed curiosity shop (April 1840 - January 1841) and Barnaby Rudge (February - November 1841),
. Then, exhausted by an abundance of work, Dickens had stopped issuing 'Hours Mr Humphrey'

. Although curiosity shop (The Old Curiosity Shop), . Going out into the light, . won many hearts, . modern readers, . not receiving a sentimental novel, . believe, . that Dickens allowed an excessive pathos in the description of wandering bleak and sad death of little Nell long,
. It is fortunate grotesque elements of the novel.

In January 1842 the wife Dickens sailed for Boston, where a mass enthusiastic meeting initiated a triumphal tour through New England, a writer in New York, Philadelphia, Washington and beyond - until the St. Louis. But the trip was overshadowed by growing resentment about American Dickens literary piracy and the inability to deal with him and - in the South - openly hostile reaction to his rejection of slavery. American Notes (American Notes), appeared in November 1842, in England, were met with warm praise and friendly criticism, but a fierce ocean caused irritation. As to the more acute satire in his next novel, Martin Chuzzlewit (Martin Chazzlewit, January 1843 - July 1844), Carlyle said: 'The Yankees boil, like a huge bottle of soda'.

The first of the Dickensian Christmas stories, A Christmas Carol (A Christmas Carol, 1843), also exposes the selfishness, in particular the desire for profits, as reflected in the concept of 'economic man'. But often escapes the attention of the reader that the desire to enrich Scrooge for the sake of enrichment represents an earnest-polukomicheskuyu parabola soulless theory of continuous competition. The general thrust of the story - the need for generosity and love - pervades and ensuing Bells (The Chimes, . 1844), . Cricket for the hearth (The Cricket on the Hearth, . 1845), . as well as less successful Battle of Life (The Battle of Life, . 1846) and The Possessed (The Haunted Man, . 1848),
.

In July 1844, together with children, Catherine and her sister, Georgina Hogarth, who is now living with them, Dickens went to Genoa. Returning to London in July 1845, he immersed himself in the care of the base and the publication of the liberal newspaper 'Daily News' ( 'The Daily News'). Publication conflicts with the owners soon forced Dickens to abandon this work. Disappointed Dickens decided that from this time his weapon in the struggle for reform will be a book. In Lausanne he began a novel Dombey and Son (Dombey and Son, October 1846 - April 1848), succeeding to the publishers Bradbury and Evans.

In May 1846 Dickens published a second book of travel writing, Pictures from Italy. In 1847 and 1848 Dickens was involved as a director and actor in amateur theatricals charity - every one in his disposition B. Johnson and the Merry Wives of Windsor William Shakespeare.

In 1849 Dickens started the novel David Copperfield (David Copperfield, in May 1849 - November 1850), which from the beginning was a huge success. The most popular of all Dickensian novels, favorite child of the author, David Copperfield, more than any other connected with the biography of the writer. It would be wrong to assume that David Copperfield is only a few modifications and a mosaic arranged in a different order of events the writer's life. Cross-cutting theme of the novel - 'disobedient heart' of the young David, the reason for all his mistakes, including the most serious - an unhappy first marriage.

In 1850 he began publishing a weekly price of two pence - 'Home Reading'. It contained a light reading, various information and messages, poems and short stories, articles about social, political and economic reforms, published without signatures. Among the authors were Elizabeth Gaskell, Harriet Martineau, Dzh.Meredit, W. Collins, C. Lever, C. Reed and E.Bulver-Lytton. 'Home Reading' immediately became popular, its sales reached, despite occasional setbacks, forty thousand copies per week. At the end of 1850 with Dickens Bulwer-Lytton founded the Guild of Literature and Art for the needy writers. As donations Lytton wrote a comedy We're not as bad as kazhemsya, which premiered in the performance of Dickens with the amateur troupe took place in the London mansion of the Duke of Devonshire in the presence of Queen Victoria. During the next year the performances were held throughout England and Scotland. By this time Dickens had eight children (one died in infancy), and another, the last child, was about to be born. In late 1851 the family moved to Dickens in a bigger house on Tevistok Square, and the writer began work on a chilly house (Bleak House, in March 1852 - September 1853).

In Bleak House Dickens rises to heights of as a satirist and social critic, writer's power manifested itself in all its gloomy glory. Although he has not lost a sense of humor, his opinions have become more bitter and bleak vision of the world. The novel - a kind of microcosm of society: the image is dominated by a dense fog around the Chancery Court, . meaning the legitimate interests of confusion, . institutions and ancient traditions fog, . that conceals the greed, . binds generosity and vision dims,
. It is because of them, according to Dickens, the company has become a destructive chaos. Trial 'Jarndyce and Jarndyce' fatally leads its victims, and that almost all the characters in the book, to collapse, ruin, despair.

Hard times (Hard Times, April 1 - August 12, 1854) printed editions of 'home reading', to raise the fallen circulation. The novel was not appreciated by either critics or the wide range of readers. Vigorous denunciation of industrialism, . small number of charming and authentic heroes, . grotesque satire of the novel were taken out of equilibrium not only conservatives and quite satisfied with the life of people, . but those, . who wanted, . that the book forced a laugh and cry, . not think,
.

Inaction of the Government, poor governance, corruption, which became apparent during the Crimean War of 1853-1856, along with unemployment, strikes and outbreaks of food riots have reinforced the belief in the need for Dickens radical reforms. He joined the Association of Administrative Reform, and in the 'home reading' continued to write critical and satirical articles, and during the six-month stay in Paris he saw the excitement in the stock market. These themes - interference by the bureaucracy, and wild speculation - it reflected in Tiny Dorrit (Little Dorrit, December 1855 - June 1857).

Summer 1857 Dickens spent Gedshille, in an old house, which admired as a child, and now able to purchase. His involvement in charity performances frozen depths W. Collins led to a crisis in the family. Years of tireless labor writer overshadowed by the growing awareness of the failure of his marriage. During employment Dickens loved the theater of the young actress Ellen Ternan. Despite the oath of allegiance to her husband, Katherine, left his house. In May 1858, after a divorce, Charles Jr., remained with the mother and other children - with his father in the care of Georgina as a hostess. Dickens eagerly took up the public reading of excerpts from his books in front of the enthusiastic audience. Quarrel with Bradbury and Evans, taken the side of Catherine, Dickens returned to Chapman and Holly. Having stopped to release 'Home Reading', . He very successfully began publishing a new weekly 'Year Round', . typing it Tale of Two Cities (A Tale of Two Cities, . April 30 - 26 November 1859), . and then Great Expectations (Great Expectations, . December 1, 1860 - August 3, 1861),
. A tale of two cities can not be attributed to the best books of Dickens. It is based on rather melodramatic coincidences and acts of violence, rather than the characters of heroes. But readers never cease to enthrall an exciting plot, brilliant caricature of inhuman and exquisite Marquis d 'Evremonda, slaughter of the French Revolution and the sacrificial heroism of Sidney Carton, brought him to the guillotine.

In the novel, the protagonist of Great Expectations Pip tells the story of the mysterious boon, which allowed him to leave the village smithy of his son in law, Joe Gardzheri, and get a proper gentleman's education in London. The image of Pip Dickens not only exposes the snobbery, but the falsity Pip dreams of the luxurious life of idle 'gentleman'. Great Expectations Pip belong to the ideal 19.: Parasitism and abundance due to inheritance and brilliant life through the labor of others.

In 1860, Dickens sold his house on Tevistok Square, and his permanent home was Gedshill. He successfully read his works in public throughout England and in Paris. His last complete novel, Our mutual friend (Our Mutual Friend), was published in editions of twenty (May 1864 - November 1865). In the last completed novel, the writer re-emerge and combine images, expressing his condemnation of the social system: a thick fog Bleak House and a huge, pressing cell Crumbs Dorrit. They Dickens adds another, deeply ironic image of London's landfill - huge piles of garbage, creates wealth Garmon. It symbolically defines the purpose of human greed as the dirt and debris. The world of the novel - almighty power of money, worship of wealth. Fraudsters thrive: a man with meaningful name Veniring (veneer - veneer) buys a seat in parliament, and stilted rich Podsnep - shout the views of society.

Health writer deteriorated. Not paying attention to the alarming symptoms, he undertook a series of exhausting public readings, and then went to a big tour of America. Revenues from the U.S. trip amounted to nearly 20 000 pounds, but the journey fatally affected his health. Dickens wild celebrations make money, but they are not only encouraged him to take a trip; ambitious nature of the writer demanded admiration and delight the public. After a short summer vacation, he began a new tour. But in Liverpool in April 1869 after 74 performances, his condition deteriorated after each reading almost deducted left arm and leg.

Several recovered in peace and quiet Gedshilla, Dickens began to write mystery of Edwin Drude (The Mystery of Edwin Drood), planning for twelve monthly issues, and convinced his doctor to allow him to twelve farewell performances in London. It began on Jan. 11, 1870, the last performance took place on March 15. Edwin Drude, the first issue of which appeared on 31 March, was written just before the half.

June 8, 1870, after Dickens spent the whole day in a chalet in the garden Gedshilla, his dinner broke blow, and the next day, about six in the evening he died. At the close of the ceremony, held on June 14 his body was buried in Poets Corner of Westminster Abbey.





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