Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Dirac Paul Adrien Maurice)( English physicist)
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Biography Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (Dirac Paul Adrien Maurice)
Awarded in 1933 (jointly with E. Schrodinger) Nobel Prize in physics for the creation of quantum mechanics. Born Aug. 8, 1902 in Bristol. In 1921 he graduated with honors from Bristol University, majoring in electrical engineering. In 1923 he enrolled in graduate school at Cambridge University to R. Fowler, who introduced him to new ideas in physics. Intrigued by the works of Heisenberg's matrix mechanics, . Dirac has developed its own original approach to quantum issues and presented it in a series of articles, . published in 1925-1926 in the 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of London' ( 'Proceedings of the Royal Society of London'),
. In 1926 received his Ph.D.. During the year, worked with Niels Bohr in Copenhagen and in M. Born in Gottingen, and then returned to Cambridge, where he was elected a Fellow of St John's College. In 1929, he taught physics at the University of Wisconsin in Madison and has lectured on quantum mechanics in other U.S. universities. Upon his return to England in 1930 Dirac was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1932 became a professor at Cambridge University, receiving department, which once held by Newton. In 1933-1934 he worked at the Princeton Institute for Basic Research, then returned to Cambridge. In 1968 went to ostavku from the post of professor at Cambridge University and after a short stint as a visiting professor at the University of New York at Stony Brook and the University of Miami, became a professor of physics at the University of Florida in Tallahassee,
Works devoted to the Dirac quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, field theory, elementary particle theory, statistical physics. In 1926-1927 he developed the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics - the theory of change, introduced a so-called. delta function. In 1927 he applied the principles of quantum mechanics to electromagnetic field and built a model of a quantized field, laying the foundations of quantum electrodynamics. Together with Heisenberg in 1928 introduced the idea of the exchange interaction.
In 1928 Dirac solved the problem, which failed to solve Schrodinger: deduced relativistic equation for the electron. This equation has an important feature - it stemmed from the notion of spin, which is absent in the non-relativistic SchrцTdinger equation, in addition, it explains the fine structure of spectra of hydrogen atom and the Zeeman effect. In 1931 Dirac hypothesized the existence of elementary magnetic charge - monopole, in 1933 - antimatter.
Dirac made a great contribution to the creation of quantum statistics. In 1926, regardless of the Enrico Fermi developed the statistics of particles with half-integer spin (statistics Fermi - Dirac). In the 1931 substantiated the possibility of the existence of a symmetric quantum electrodynamics, based on the concept of elementary magnetic charges.
In 1937 Dirac conjectured change of gravity over time. In 1962 developed the theory of the muon, considering the latter as the vibrational state of the electron, to deal with the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory of gravity in order to further quantization of the gravitational field
. Among the major works of the scientist - Principles of Quantum Mechanics (The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, . 1930), . The development of quantum theory (The Development of Quantum Theory, . 1971), . Spinors in Hilbert Space (Spinors in Hilbert Space, . 1974), . General Theory of Relativity (General Theory of Relativity, . 1975),
Dirac was awarded the Royal Medal (1939), the Copley Medal (1952), received the prize R. Oppenheimer and several other awards. Dirac died in Tallahassee (pc. Florida) 20 October 1984.