Honore Victorin Daumier (Daumier Honor Victorin)( French lithographer, painter and sculptor.)
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Biography Honore Victorin Daumier (Daumier Honor Victorin)
Born in Marseille, February 20, 1808. Artist's family moved to Paris when he was a child. Honore served as a messenger in a lawyer, worked as a bookseller, lithography. He took lessons in drawing, he studied ancient sculpture in the Louvre and worked in the studio of Eugц¬ne Budena. In 1830, first attracted the attention of Daumier lithographs Charles Filipona, publisher of a liberal political magazine 'Karikatyur'. Daumier began to publish his lithographs in this magazine under the pseudonym Rozhlen. For one of them, a caricature of Louis-Philippe, depicted as Gargantua, the author of six months went to prison. When in 1835 'Karikatyur' was banned, Filipon founded another humorous magazine - 'charivari', and Daumier continuously published it in his lithographs for almost forty years. He ridiculed the shortcomings and weaknesses of the petty bourgeoisie, attacked the enemies of progress and turned to political topics, if permitted by the censor. About 4 out of thousands of lithographs by Daumier series: for example, . Ancient History series (1841-1843) has become commonplace ridiculed classicism in the spirit of David, . in a series Karikatyurana protagonist of popular melodrama Robert Makere exhibited typical charlatan,
. Lawyers, doctors and politicians too often the victims of caustic wit of the artist.
Each month, Daumier produced about one hundred lithographs, and he has left very little time to study painting, for which he, despite the complete failure of the critics of the Salon of his paintings, is a growing interest. In 1860-1864, he did no longer engage in lithography, but the utter destitution again forced him to turn to this occupation. In 1873, due to almost complete loss of Daumier lost and that their livelihood. Corot, who admired his genius, saved the old masters from the confiscation of property by the court. Daumier died in abject poverty in the suburbs of Paris Valmondua February 10, 1879.
The number of fake paintings by Daumier, perhaps even exceeding the number of completed works. Unfinished work of third-class cars (New York, Metropolitan Museum) provides an excellent opportunity to explore the picturesque manner of Daumier. It is clearly visible trudnovosproizvodimy creative method of the artist: he started with the skeleton contour lines, reminiscent of his recent lithographs, and then passed on them lessirovok thin layers, creating a dense translucent painting surface. Thus is achieved the effect of sculptural masses. In part, this result is explained by the fact that Daumier long used small clay models for his paintings. He worked very quickly and had an incredibly accurate visual memory, so they created the images seem to be taken straight from life.