Emile Durkheim (Durkheim Emile)( French sociologist, one of the first representatives of the functionalist)
Comments for Emile Durkheim (Durkheim Emile)
Biography Emile Durkheim (Durkheim Emile)
Born in Epinal April 15, 1858 to a family of scholar Rabbi. In the higher normal school, where he graduated in 1882, his teachers were the philosopher and historian Emil Boutroux Fustel de Coulanges. Durkheim taught in several provincial high schools until 1887 (with a year's break for an internship, including in Germany). In 1887-1902 he lectured on social sciences and pedagogy at the University of Bordeaux. In 1902, Durkheim was invited to the University of Paris, where in 1913 he finally managed to get to recognize the sociology of independent research area. Durkheim believed that the subject of sociology - a particular social reality, 'social facts', existing as if over individuals and having a coercive. In 1896 he founded the 'Sociological Yearbook' ( 'L'Anne sociologique'), which led to the outbreak of World War.
Durkheim's original idea was that the submission of the idealists of the nature of man and society closer to reality than the views of social thinkers (from Hobbes to Spencer), who sought to rely on the 'science'. The challenge, therefore, was to 'translate' these notions from the language of metaphysics in the language of objective scientific method. The study of primitive societies and religions, for it confirmed the correctness of the target. The first work of Durkheim, . On the division of social labor (De la division du travail social, . 1893), . contained criticisms of the concept of Spencer - look at society as a system of 'contractual' relations between individuals, . exchange products to better meet the personal desires,
. Division of labor in a developed society is to maintain his 'solidarity', and society itself - a system of social phenomena that perform specific functions, which correspond to 'social needs'.
Four years later, in the monumental work Suicide: a sociological study (Le siucide: Etude de sociologie, 1897) Durkheim coined the term 'anomie' to describe one of the factors contributing to the increase in the number of suicides. Anomie - a drop in the credibility of those moral rules that govern and direct the satisfaction of desires. This kind of moral vacuum occurs in the transition periods, when the old rules no longer apply, and the new has not yet formed. Until now, research on social disintegration are based on some ideas of Durkheim's work.
His proposed the concept of 'collective consciousness', despite all the criticism it has provoked, drew attention to the fact that social life depends on the system of values shared by members of the society. With any such system of values related to a set of basic ideas (or 'categories'), in terms of which members of society interpret common for them the world and to communicate with each other. The function of rituals, including religious ones - in the maintenance and reconstruction of individual devotion to the common values
. Among the major works of Durkheim - Rules of sociological method (Rgles de la mthode sociologique, . 1895); The elementary forms of religious life (Les formes lmentaires de la vie religieuse, . 1912), Sociology and Philosophy (Sociologie et philosophie, . 1924),
Durkheim died in Fontainebleau near Paris on Nov. 15, 1917.