George Canning (Canning George)( Prime Minister of Great Britain.)
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Biography George Canning (Canning George)
Born April 11, 1770 in London, in a poor family lawyer. His grandfather - a wealthy Irish landowner - has deprived the son inheritance, when he married a woman a circle. Canning's mother, left a widow with a baby in her arms, broke with respectable society, became the mistress of actor Samuel Reddisha.
Canning took over the upbringing of his uncle, who sent a teenager at Eton, then at Christ Church College, Oxford University. In 1791, Canning went to law school 'Lincoln's Inn', later chose a political career. Was presented to William Pitt the Younger, under the patronage of which won a seat in Parliament (1793). Has quickly established himself as a brilliant orator, and in 1796 he was appointed Assistant Minister for Foreign Affairs in the office of Pitt. Followed by further purpose - the Commissioner in the Department of Indian Affairs (1799) and in the joint military Treasury (1800). In 1800, financial and social situation Canning improved significantly after his marriage to heiress Joan Scott, whose sister was the wife of the Duke of Portland.
In 1801, Canning and Pitt resigned in 1804 but has returned to the government, in which Canning was appointed Treasurer of the Navy. After the death of Pitt (January 1806) Canning and his supporters have resigned and were in opposition to the March 1807. Supporters Pitt returned to power under the leadership of the Duke of Portland, in the office where Canning became minister of foreign affairs and pursued a policy of active financial and military support of Spain in its war with Napoleon. In 1809, came into conflict with the War Minister Viscount Castlereagh on the conduct of hostilities with Napoleonic France. Castlereagh and Canning fought a duel, and both were forced to resign. A few weeks later the Duke of Portland resigned from his post, citing the deterioration of health. Canning, who had expected that George III appointed him prime minister, refused to serve under the authority of Spencer Percival. Summer of 1812 he had just refused the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs, who offered him the successor to Percival Lord Liverpool.
From 1814 Canning - Ambassador to Portugal, two years later, again in the government - as the chairman of Chamber of Control. Disagreeing with the government's position on the case of Queen Caroline, in which he tried to divorce George IV, Canning, in December of that year he resigned. Canning was on friendly terms with Carolina, when she was Princess of Wales, at the same time at George IV appeared serious (but erroneous) suspicion that Canning was with her in the affair. Canning was appointed Governor-General of Bengal and was preparing to sail to India. But in August 1822 by his old foe Castlereagh, the Foreign Minister and Speaker of the House of Commons, committed suicide. In September 1822 on the vacant posts of the King appointed Canning.
Foreign Minister and Prime Minister. Canning disapproved of the policy of the continental powers, and in 1823 brought to England from the Holy Alliance. Adhered to the principle of noninterference in internal affairs of other states. Canning has been prepared to assist the constitutional parties in Spain when the country was invaded by the French army to restore the absolute authority of Ferdinand VII (1823) (this assistance did not materialize due to resistance from the king and of the cabinet). However, even the Conservatives supported Canning, when he did not allow France to use its naval forces to help Spain to suppress the liberation movement in South America. Political Setup Canning influenced the proclamation of the United States government on Dec. 2, 1823 the Monroe Doctrine, asserts the principle of American opposition to any interference by European powers in the affairs of the New World.
The success of the policy of new states of South America gave grounds Cunningham said in 1826 that he 'brought to life the New World to redress the balance in the Old World'. The year before, Canning's office persuaded of the need to stay the course on the recognition of political independence of the former South American colonies of Spain and thus enable the UK to gain access to new markets. The popularity of Canning's foreign policy has radically changed the attitude of George IV. In April 1827, following the resignation of Lord Liverpool, Canning, King appointed the prime minister, in preference to Sir Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington
. As Canning was the main supporter of the emancipation of Catholics in the Tory party, anti-Catholic-minded ministers - nearly half the cabinet - have refused to serve under him and went into opposition, prompting it to seek support from the Whigs
. Drawing on their voices and votes of independent members of parliament Canning received an overwhelming majority in the House of Commons. In the House of Lords its Corn Laws was rejected by the protectionists of the Tory party. This law is intended to further the progressive liberalization of grain trading through its withdrawal from the system of prohibitive tariffs, established in 1815, and had to put an end to price shocks.
One of the important areas of foreign policy of Canning as Prime Minister was the decision of a so-called. Greek question, which stirred Europe since then, as in 1821 in Greece, a rebellion broke out against the domination of Turkey. Canning sought to prevent the intervention of Russia in order to assist the Greeks, because it could lead to a strengthening of Russia in the Balkans. As an alternative, he proposed a tripartite cooperation between Russia, Britain and France to obtain from the Sultan of acceptable conditions for peace. The result of this policy was signed on 6 July 1827 London Convention, which Russia, Britain and France demanded that the Sultan of Turkey to grant autonomy to Greece provided an annual payment of tribute. The refusal of the Sultan forced European powers to send to the shores of the Turkish fleet, which defeated the Turks in the battle Navarrinskom (1827). The final issue was resolved after the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829, when the sultan accepted the terms of the London Convention. Canning died in Chiswick near London, August 8, 1827.