KARL I( The King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the dynasty of the Stewarts.)
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Biography KARL I
The second son of King of Scotland, James VI, Charles was born in Dunfermline on Nov. 19, 1600. In 1603 James became King of England (as James I), and death in 1612 his elder brother, Prince Henry, Charles made Prince of Wales. Desiring to establish peace in Europe, Jacob thought of marrying his son to a Spanish princess, and in 1623 Charles accompanied Vilmersa George, Duke of Buckingham, has arrived incognito to Madrid to discuss the terms of her marriage with the Infanta Maria. However, negotiations failed (mainly due to arrogance of Buckingham and the fact that the Spaniards insisted on the adoption of Catholicism by Karl), Karl returned home and soon married the daughter of King Henry IV of France, Henrietta Maria. In March 1625, . When his father died, . British enthusiastically welcomed as the new king, Charles - in the hope, . he will revive the glory of English arms, . victorious at sea when Queen Elizabeth I, . challenged by Spain and will help European Protestants,
. However, British troops suffered several defeats in which all were inclined to blame the Buckingham, a favorite of the king, but Charles has accused the parliament - for the fact that he identified too few resources.
In 1626, Karl has collected the money apart from the Parliament - with the help of forced loan, but in 1628 the Parliament forced him to adopt a so-called. Petition of Right, aiming to protect liberty and property of subjects from the encroachments. The murder of Buckingham a few months too late in order to ease tensions between the King and Parliament, and in 1629 Charles dissolved the Parliament and for 11 years running the country without the aid of Parliament.
To strengthen the navy, a necessary tool to combat pirates, Karl restored ancient 'naval submit', intending to turn it into a permanent tax (1635). In 1638 the Scots-Presbyterians rebelled against attempts to impose Karl Scotland ceremonies and prayer of the Episcopal Church, and in November 1640 the King, his defeat and not had the money, had to convene a so-called. Long Parliament.
Under the masterful leadership of John Pym Parliament forced the king to conclude the Archbishop of Lod in prison, and Strafforda send to the block. Parliament forced Charles to abolish the Court of Star Chamber and High Commission, through which he exercised his authority, and agree not to dissolve the current parliament. In October 1641 the Irish rebelled. Parliament suspected the king, or at least the queen, of complicity in the uprising, and demanded that all troops sent in its suppression, were passed under the Parliament. King did not wish to waive a right that is considered vital to maintaining their power, and in January 1642 in a failed attempt to arrest five leading members of the House of Commons and one - the House of Lords. Subsequent rioting led Charles to escape from London.
And the king and parliament began to gather troops and the civil war become inevitable. Charles raised his standard at Nottingham (August 1642), but after some success, his troops were defeated at Marston Moor (1644) and Neyzbi (1645). In May 1646, Karl, dressed and accompanied by just two satellites, escaped from the besieged at Oxford to the Scots, relying on their assistance against the Englishmen, but they agreed to support him only if he accepts Presbyterian. Charles refused, and was referred to Parliament.
Parliament, which were strong Presbyterians, was at odds with its own army, led by Oliver Cromwell and the officers were mostly Independents. In June 1647 the army kidnapped Charles, probably with the connivance of Cromwell, and came to London. Carl prolonged negotiations and tried to win over Cromwell. In November, he escaped, but was again seized on the Isle of Wight. In the spring of 1648 the plans of Charles seemed to have been initiated: in England invaded Scotland, in some places there were uprisings of the royalists. The army put down this second civil war, and the more moderate group in the parliament tried to reach an agreement with the captive king in TN. 'Newport Contract'. The victorious army, betraying an angry king was determined to bring him to death. In December 1648 the army staged 'cleansing' of parliament, and in January 1649, Karl appeared in court, composed of 150 members of parliament. King denied the legitimacy of the court and refused to participate in the process, but he was sentenced to death as a traitor and executed at Whitehall January 30, 1649.