Karl XIV Johan( The King of Sweden and Norway.)
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Biography Karl XIV Johan
Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte was born on January 26, 1763 in Pau (southern France) in the family clerk. Shortly after the death of his father (1780) enlisted in the army. For ten years rose to the highest representatives of his estate to the rank of sergeant. After the French Revolution, the old restrictions were eliminated, and in 1794 became general Bernadotte.
Bernadotte inspired his troops fiery speeches and brought glory Mezskoy Army. After a brief and unsuccessful mission, Ambassador in Vienna Bernadotte returned to Paris, frequented salons of Madame de Recamier, and Madame de Stael. August 17, 1798 he married DцLsirцLe Clary, daughter of a wealthy merchant from Marseilles. Desiree was the first mistress of Napoleon, and her sister Julie married Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte. Thus, this marriage is entered in the Bernadotte family Bonaparte.
Within ten weeks of 1799 Bernadotte served as Minister of War. Not wanting to cooperate with the Abbe Sieyesom and the group expect to change in the government, he was dismissed shortly before the return of Napoleon from Egypt. Bernadotte did not accept the offer to join Napoleon's 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799). However, when the consulate was recognized as the legitimate government, Bernadotte began to cooperate with the authorities and in 1804 became one of the first eighteen Marshals of France. In 1805 he successfully commanded the troops at Austerlitz. In 1806 he was granted estates in Italy and the title of Prince of Pontecorvo, in 1807 he became governor of the Hanseatic cities. In this position Bernadotte deeply INEC in Baltic politics, and became known in Northern Europe. In 1809 he returned to military service, but after the Battle of Wagram fell into disfavor and was sent to Paris. Later, led the defense of the island Valhern, protecting it from the British landed.
In 1809, as a result of a palace coup in Sweden, was sent into exile Gustav IV Adolf, and ascended to the throne the old and childless Karl XIII. First elected Crown Prince died in 1810. In a rather mysterious circumstances surfaced candidacy Bernadotte. In August 1810 the Riksdag elected him as the Crown Prince of Sweden, which gave its consent Napoleon. Before you set foot on the land of Sweden, Bernadotte adopted Lutheranism, was adopted by Charles XIII, and took the name Karl Johan
. Instead, . that with Napoleon deprive Finland from Russia (to which they hoped, . who put forward his candidacy in Sweden), . Carl Johan entered into an alliance with Russia (1812), . Britain and Prussia (1813) in order to break Napoleon and get Norway,
. As commander of one of the armies of the coalition antinapoleonovskoy Bernadotte took part in the Battle of Nations in October 1813 in Leipzig, and then headed north to get Denmark to abandon Norway. Although this goal was achieved by the Peace Treaty of Kiel in January 1814, Prince was forced to spend their summer military campaign to force the Norwegians to obey. Unia Norway and Sweden remained until 1905.
In 1818 Charles XIII died and Bernadotte became king under the name of Karl XIV Johan. He did much to promote education, agricultural development, strengthen the country's finances and restore the image of Sweden. His personal charm, intelligence, combination of tact and firmness, as well as the willingness to share power with the emerging new forces enabled him to become a 'grand old man of Northern Europe'. Karl XIV Johan died March 8, 1844.