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Ernst Cassirer (Cassirer Ernst)

( German philosopher and historian.)

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Biography Ernst Cassirer (Cassirer Ernst)
Born in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland) 28 July 1874. Receiving primary education in his native town, in 1892 entered the University of Berlin. In accordance with the European tradition, to promote employment in several schools, attended lectures at the universities of Leipzig, Heidelberg, Munich and Marburg. First Cassirer intended to study law, but became interested in literature and the humanities, in the future, doing philosophy, deeply studied physics and mathematics. In the Marburg (where he received his Ph.D. in 1899, submitting his thesis on the analysis of Descartes' mathematical and scientific knowledge) Cassirer learned from G. Cohen and P. Natorp - the leading representatives of a so-called neo -. Marburg school, course, proclaimed a return to Kant, in contrast to the then dominant Hegelianism. Cassirer was particularly close to Cohen in the interpretation of Kant and interest in Judaism. In papers written at the University of Berlin in 1906-1919 (where Cassirer taught as a privat-docent), developed the basic ideas of neo -. At that time he was particularly interested in epistemology and philosophy of science, in particular the problems associated with Einstein's theory. Cassirer also studied history and literature, especially German classics - Lessing, Goethe and Schiller. In the same period, he wrote a biography of Kant, and prepared a publication of works of this great thinker.
In 1919-1933 Cassirer was a professor of philosophy, but in 1930-1933 the rector of the University of Hamburg, at the same time headed the Warburg Institute, where he conducted research on the history of culture. When Hitler came to power in 1933, Cassirer emigrated to England, where he continued to teach at All Souls College at Oxford University in 1933-1935 and in 1935-1941 was invited to the University of Gothenburg (Sweden). In 1941-1944 Cassirer taught at Yale University and Columbia universitete.Umer Cassirer at Princeton (pc. New Jersey) April 13, 1945

. Peru belongs to Cassirer's extensive historical work The problem of knowledge in philosophy and science of modern times (Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit, . 1906-1957), . in which a systematic exposition of the problem, its history from antiquity to the 40-ies of the 20 in,
. Bringing together the results of their studies cultural studies, science and history, he published another three-volume work - Philosophy of symbolic forms (Philosophie der symbolischen Formen, 1923-1929)

. In these and other works of Cassirer analyzed the function of language, . myth and religion, . art and history as a 'symbolic forms', . through which a person acquires an understanding of itself and the world, . so that man himself is defined as' animal, . creating the characters',
. In the same vein, he developed a philosophical discipline, which, following Kant, Cassirer called philosophical anthropology. She is represented, in particular, in the Essay on Man (Essay on man. An introduction to a philosophy of human culture, 1945). Studies of spiritual culture of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (including: individual and the cosmos in Renaissance philosophy - Individuum und Kosmos in der Philosophie der Renaissance, . 1927; philosophy of the Enlightenment - Die Philosophie der Aufkldrung, . 1932) can regard it as a pioneer in the area, . which was later called 'the history of ideas',

Important place in the concept of Cassirer's philosophy of language occupied. Language, along with science, art, religion, myth is one of the 'symbolic forms' culture. Out of the chaos of impressions language shapes the world picture. Language - the creation of independent spirit, with the help of man creates (rather than simply reflect) reality. On the basis of linguistic signs form concepts, which are the products of symbolic cognition. Cassirer studied the relationship between the various 'symbolic forms', in particular, the relationship between language, myth and art, mediated by metaphor, to deal with the general patterns of linguistic meanings.

Concept Cassirer had a great influence on many scientists in the first half of 20., Not the ideas of structuralism: the neogumboldtiantsev in Germany, Bakhtin, VN Voloshinova, Marr in the USSR.

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