Kaunda, Kenneth (Kaunda Kenneth)( President of Zambia.)
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Biography Kaunda, Kenneth (Kaunda Kenneth)
Born April 28, 1924 in the mission of the Scottish Presbyterian church in Lubve in the north of Zambia (then - Northern Rhodesia). He studied at secondary school in Lusaka, received a degree from a teacher and since 1943 has taught in elementary school.
Since 1950, Kaunda took an active part in the activities of the African National Congress (ANC), and in 1952 became a local leader of the party in the Northern Province. In 1953 he was elected Secretary General of the ANC. During the next five years, helped to coordinate the activities of G. Nkumbule ANC resistance to British plans for the federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
At the end of 1958 Kaunda was released from the ANC, together with the radical group of Bemba, Lozi and other northern rodeziytsev and formed the African National Congress Zambia. In 1959 he was arrested, after a year of prison appeared on the political scene as the leader of the new organization - the United National Independence Party (UNIP), who won election in 1962. In 1963, Kaunda became the chief minister, and in 1964 Zambia gained independence. As president, Kaunda declared a state of multi-party system, but in 1972 decided to introduce one-party system. Since 1965 Zambia has secretly supported the struggle against white minority regimes in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and Namibia, allowing its territory to the rebel organizations in both countries. Prior to 1975 due to high prices for copper on the world market economy of Zambia has successfully developed. The fall in copper prices led to a prolonged economic crisis, rising inflation and lower living standards. By the end of 1980 Kaunda faced widespread opposition to his regime, and in 1990 was forced to legalize opposition parties. October 31, 1991 at the first alternative elections, Kaunda was soundly defeated, receiving less than 25% of votes.
In 1995, Kaunda was elected leader of UNIP and announced its intention to participate in the next presidential elections (1996), but in the end he was not allowed to participate in the elections. UNIP, which boycotted the elections, joined other opposition groups challenging the results of the counting. In August 1997, Kaunda was wounded during anti-government demonstration. In December 1997, Kaunda was arrested, he was accused of plotting a coup, but in June 1998, Kaunda was released, and then announced his retirement from politics.