Cleopatra VII( Egyptian queen, last ruler of the dynasty founded by Ptolemy military leader Alexander of Macedon)
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Biography Cleopatra VII
Egyptian queen, the last ruler of the dynasty founded by Alexander the Macedonian warlord Ptolemy, who took over Egypt after the collapse of the empire of Alexander. Around Cleopatra, rare in the history of the femme fatale character, even when life has been woven many legends and fables, often occurring from hostile and interested in discrediting its sources. Especially prevalent myths about its cruelty, treachery and depravity. As Plutarch wrote of Cleopatra, the queen was not so beautiful, how sweet and pleasant to use. It featured a remarkable erudition and wit, knew many languages, including Egyptian (in contrast to their ancestors).
Cleopatra was the eldest of the daughters died in 51 BC. Ptolemy XI Avleta. The will Avlet named Cleopatra and her eldest son, Ptolemy XII co-rulers, subject to a marriage between them (the Ptolemies married sisters). Rome, he announced the guarantor of the Egyptian state. Soon, not without the machinations of the court, the brother and sister quarrel. Potin and Achilles, the first officials, provoked a revolt in Alexandria, and in 48 BC. Cleopatra had to flee to Syria, and dignitaries began to rule on behalf of minor King. In Syria, Cleopatra has gathered an army and moved back to Egypt to regain his throne. Soon, the same year the army of Ptolemy and Cleopatra met at Pelusium and prepared for battle, which never took place because it arrived at Alexandria by Julius Caesar said that the right to judge this conflict as a representative of Rome. Potin and Ptolemy returned to Alexandria, leaving the army to guard Cleopatra. Wanting to get the favor of Caesar, Cleopatra on a small boat, accompanied by only a few came close to Alexandria. She had wrapped herself in a carpet, and a member of the suite, Sicilian Apollodorus, brought her to Caesar, saying the palace guard that has the gift of a Roman. The next day Caesar in the presence of Ptolemy and the court read out the testament Avleta and forced them back to Cleopatra to the throne. In 47 BC. Potin, and Achilles raised a new uprising ( 'the Alexandrian war'), but as a result of fierce fighting were defeated. Potin was beheaded, Achilles was killed earlier as a result of intrigues, Ptolemy drowned in the Nile during the flight, and Arsinoe, Cleopatra's younger sister, fled the country. Having won the war, Caesar could declare Egypt a Roman province, but instead he ordered Cleopatra to marry with another brother, 11-year-old Ptolemy XIII, and stay on the throne. Moreover, Caesar, neglecting their own affairs in Rome and the East, for two weeks, stayed in Egypt, and now his affair with Cleopatra has become publicly known. Upon his return to Rome Caesar asked the tribune of the people of Ai Gelviya Tsinnu bring to the Senate legislation that would allow him to marry Cleopatra and make their son his heir Caesarion. In 46 BC. Cleopatra with Ptolemy XIII, Caesarion and his entourage came to Rome, he settled at the villa of Caesar, where he constantly visited her. The murder of Caesar in 44 BC, . among other, . explain his attempt to divorce his wife, . to enter into marriage with a stranger, . so, . that he found in the temple of Venus a golden statue of Cleopatra, . well as suspicion of the Romans, . that he intends to rule over them as king, . not only setting the monarchy, . but making Cleopatra queen, . thus subjecting Rome to Egypt,
. After the death of Caesar, Cleopatra returned to Egypt.
Ptolemy XIII died in 43 BC, the eve of his age when he could expect to participate in management, and in his death, accused of Cleopatra. After the death of Ptolemy XIII Cleopatra made co-regent with her son Caesarion.
During the civil war that began after the death of Caesar, Cleopatra, supported his followers - the triumvirate of Mark Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus. For help them, she sent a fleet and four Legion. But the troops were intercepted and joined the Republicans. Cleopatra projectile triumvirs sent another fleet, but the ships caught in a storm and not reach their objectives. In the battle of Philippi in October 42 BC. Brutus and Cassius were defeated, and triumvirs divided the Roman Power. Anthony, who became ruler of the eastern part, called Cleopatra to Tarsus in Cilicia, where she had to answer for the support of Republicans. In 41 BC, waiting time, Cleopatra sailed to Tarsus on the river in Kidney beautifully adorned vessel. Anthony at that time held an audience, but people in crowds, leaving him, rushed to the river to look at the colorful spectacle, which was a ship Cleopatra. Anthony came on board and was adopted by Cleopatra, who appealed to him not as oratress, and welcomed the rights of housewives. The following days passed in amusements, and Egypt, instead of a Roman province, as suggested by Anthony, remained an independent state. At the request of Cleopatra Antony ordered the execution of her sister Arsine and other insurgents. At the end of the campaign, which led Antony in Syria, he neglected his affairs in Rome and followed Cleopatra to Alexandria. There, festivities and entertainment continued. Antony and Cleopatra sometimes wore clothes of slaves and roamed the streets, arranging jokes and Brawls.
Anthony's wife raised a revolt against Octavian in Italy, which was soon overwhelmed. In 40 BC. Anthony had to leave Alexandria to restore relations with a colleague (Lepidus they are pushed into the background). In that year, in Antony and Cleopatra gave birth to twins, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. In 39 BC. Cleopatra's forces crushed the revolt at the Egyptian border, in the stony Arabia. Fulvia died soon after, and in the same year, Anthony was married to Octavia, sister of Octavian.
In 37 BC. Cleopatra, at the request of Anthony went to Laodicea, to deliver supplies to his army. In exchange for agreement to provide funds to Cleopatra's Parthian campaign, Anthony gave her a part of the territory of Phoenician and north of Judah, had promised to marry her and legitimize the marriage and children. They married later (probably in 36 BC) in Antioch, during the Persian campaign. Upon his return in late summer in the Alexandria, Cleopatra bore a son. When Anthony began to suffer military defeats, Cleopatra once again came to his rescue. Antony's wife Octavia also went to him with equipment for the troops, but when she reached Athens, he ordered her to return to Rome.
In 34 BC. Anthony led the successful campaign in Armenia, and Syria has reorganized. His triumph, it is extremely lavishly celebrated in Alexandria, while he with Cleopatra's sons were declared 'the kings of kings'. Cleopatra and Caesarion, her son by Caesar, received a joint board, in addition to Egypt, Cyprus, Libya and Kelesiriyu. The elder son of Anthony and Cleopatra, Alexander had been given to Armenia, the kings of Media and Parthia, his twin sister, Cleopatra was Cyrene, and their younger brother Ptolemy - dates, Syria and Cilicia.
When he learned that Anthony gives the Roman territory to the Egyptians, the Romans came to the outrage. In 32 BC. Octavian made in the Senate with a diatribe against Antony and on behalf of the Senate declared war on Cleopatra. Anthony then located in Media, and Cleopatra, having learned about the war, had joined him in Ephesus. The winter of 32-31 BC. they spent in Samos in the amusements. Anthony then sent his wife Octavia letter notifying them that the official divorce. The beginning of 31 BC. whole court, arrived in Athens. Fatal for Antonia role played Cleopatra in this war, often exaggerated. However, there is no doubt that her presence in the rate of Anthony alienated many of his former allies. Finally, in September 31 BC. armies met at the rally, where the fleet of Antony and Cleopatra suffered a complete defeat.
Anthony joined his legions of Cyrene, and Cleopatra returned to Alexandria to recruit additional troops and equip a new fleet. She had intended to abdicate in favor of his son Caesarion, but Octavian had promised her his favor only on the condition that she would kill Anthony. Cleopatra refused and began to feel all sorts of poisons, including snake, the prisoners held at Alexandria jail.
Anthony once again defeated near Alexandria, and Cleopatra's fleet over to the side of Octavian. Cleopatra took refuge in the construction of her tomb for himself, and Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra and her two maidens, afraid to open the doors of the tomb, took the dying Antony through the window. Anthony died at the hands of the Queen.
Trying to die, Cleopatra, refused food and medicine. Octavian threatened that in case of her death, kill children, and Cleopatra was forced again to take food. But after learning that Octavian ordered to send her to Rome to hold a captive in a triumphal procession, Cleopatra decided to commit suicide (possibly lowering his hands in a basket of poisonous snakes). Died Cleopatra, the last day of August 30 BC. and was buried beside Antony, Octavian, as requested in the suicide letter.