Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas( French mathematician, economist, writer and philosopher of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.)
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Biography Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas
Born September 17, 1743 in Ribmone (France). An aristocrat by birth, Condorcet rejected the military and ecclesiastical career and became a scientist. His dissertation on the integral calculus, presented in 16 years (Experience in the integral calculus, Du calcul intgral, 1765), was highly appreciated by d'Alembert. After the publication of scrutinizing (Essays d'Analyse, 1768) was adopted by members of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1777 elected its Permanent Secretary. He wrote biographies of famous scientists 17. Condorcet and his contemporaries - Praise academics (Eloges des acadmiciens ... morts depuis 1666 jusqu'en 1699, 1773). In 1782, Condorcet was elected a member of the French Academy. Participated in the famous Encyclopedias.
Under the influence of close friends, Voltaire and Turgot, whose biography he wrote (Life Turgot, Vie de M. Turgo, 1786, Life of Voltaire, Vie de Voltaire, 1789), Condorcet became interested in the social sciences. His ability as an economist were recognized when, after the triumph of the Physiocrats, Turgot was appointed Minister of Finance, and Condorcet - chief inspector of the Mint. In 1785 he published a work experience of the analysis to the problem of the probability of majority voting (Essai sur l'application de l'analyse la probabilit des dcisions rendues la pluralit des voix). The second revised and greatly enlarged edition appeared in 1805 under the title Elements of the calculus of probability and its application to gambling, . lottery and human judgments (Elements du calcul des probabilits et son application aux jeux de hasard, . la loterie et aux jugements des hommes),
In 1791, Condorcet was elected to the Legislative Assembly from Paris and soon became its secretary. Took part in the reform of the education system, writing a series of declarations and Girondist version of the Constitution. Against the death penalty to Louis XVI. Accused of conspiracy and sentenced to death by the Jacobins, their opponents in the Convention, Condorcet was hiding in a secret refuge in Paris in 1793. For the nine months he was able to write a great work of historical sketch picture of progress of human reason (Esquisse d'un tableau historique des progrs de l'esprit humain, . 1795) on the goodness and greatness of human nature and limitless improvement and progress of mankind, . had a profound influence on Saint-Simon and Comte,
. After his arrest March 27, 1794 he was placed in a tavern in Bourg-la-Reine, where he died (apparently from exhaustion or poison) March 29, 1794. Convent, Condorcet condemned, subsequently ruled that the publication of his latest work.