CONRAD, Joseph (Conrad Joseph)( English writer.)
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Biography CONRAD, Joseph (Conrad Joseph)
JцЁzef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski (Korzeniowski), who took the name later Joseph Conrad, born December 3, 1857 in Berdichev in Ukraine. Conrad's childhood was tragic. His father, Apollo Korzeniowski, was actively involved in the struggle for the independence of Poland and the uprising of 1863. Shortly before the uprising, he was arrested by Russian authorities and deported with his family to Vologda, where he died in 1869 (Conrad's mother died earlier, in 1869). Uncle Conrad's mother's side, Tadeusz Bobrowski, became the guardian of the boy. Hard shifting school discipline, in October 1874 Conrad persuaded his uncle to allow him to decide in the French merchant navy.
For four years he made three trips to the West Indies, thoughtlessly wasting money earned, was engaged in arms smuggling and even tried to commit suicide (he later claimed was injured in a duel). In 1878, Conrad went to the British freighter, . because Russia's citizenship did not allow him to float on the French courts, . and the following 16 years, sailed mainly in the English courts, . thus learned the language, . and in 1886 even received a captain's certificate,
Over the years, voyages to the East, he gained the impression there the inhabitants, that gave the material for the first two novels, Caprice Olmeyera (Almayer Folly, 1895) and the Exile of the islands (An Outcast of the Islands, 1896). Following came the book The Negro with 'Narcissus' (The Nigger of the Narcissus, 1897) and Tales of restlessness (Tales of Unrest, 1898). In 1896 Conrad married Jessie George and settled in Kent, due to ill health abandoning the sea in favor of literature.
Recognized by many critics the best novel Lord Jim Conrad (Lord Jim, 1900) is an analysis of 'heightened consciousness of loss of honor'. In 1902, Conrad published novel Taifun (Typhoon) and a collection of three novellas - Youth (Youth), Heart of Darkness (Heart of Darkness), The end of slavery (The End of the Tether)
. In three of Conrad's novels reflected his concern with political issues: Nostromo (Nostromo, . 1904) - story of a fictional South American States, . where mixed idealism and cynicism, . cruelty and pathos of the novel The Secret Agent (The Secret Agent, . 1907), . whose action unfolds in London, . - Analysis of ruthless amorality psevdoanarhicheskogo mindset, in the novel Through the Eyes of the West (Under Western Eyes, . 1911) depicts the senseless tyranny of the Russian autocracy,
Already in the early works of Conrad's career received high critical acclaim, but the real popularity came to him in 1914, after the novel case (Chance). Publication of the novel Pobeda (Victory, 1915) consolidated his reputation. The theme of both novels was the story of a failed rescue the unfortunate girl man, acting in good faith.
During the First World War, Conrad wrote almost nothing except poluavtobiograficheskogo novel feature of the Shadow (Shadow-Line) although in late 1918 and began work on the Golden Arrow (The Arrow of Gold). He managed to complete the novel Salvation (The Rescue), about the unfulfilled promises and repentance. At his zenith, working on a grandiose plan for a novel about the escape of Napoleon from Elba, Conrad died in Bishopsborne (Kent) 3 August 1924.