CORTES Hernan (Cortes, Hernan)( Spanish conquistador.)
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Biography CORTES Hernan (Cortes, Hernan)
Born in Medellin (province of Extremadura, Spain) in 1485. In 1504, interrupting his studies at Salamanca University, went to seek his fortune in the West Indies. In 1511-1512 participated in the conquest of Cuba.
In March 1519 Cortes landed on the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, seized the capital of Tabasco and founded the city of Veracruz. Rumors of the rich Aztec Empire, CortцLs was forced to destroy the ships and forced march to go deep into the mainland. The Spaniards defeated a large force of Indians in Tlashkalane and Cholula, concluded an alliance with tlashkalantsami and with their support on Nov. 8, 1519 entered into Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. Montezuma, forced to give strangers a friendly reception, was taken hostage. When they got to that in Mexico, landed a detachment Panfilo Narvaez, sent by the governor of Cuba in order to catch the Cortes, the latter left in Tenochtitlan garrison under the command of Pedro de Alvarado, and hurried to the coast. The stories of the wealth of the Aztecs Cortes Narvaez managed to lure soldiers to their side, and with a reinforced army, he returned to Mexico to aid Alvarado, who made a slaughter in the city and provoked an uprising. The besieged Spaniards secretly decided to leave the city, but were attacked and defeated the Aztecs. Cortes and the surviving soldiers found refuge in Tlashkalane and the following months, preparations for a campaign dedicated to the Aztec capital. In the summer of 1521, after a three-month siege Tenochtitlц¦n fell, and Montezuma's successor, Cuauhtemoc, who led the defense of the city, was captured.
In subsequent years, Cortes conquered the Aztec empire peripheral area and rebuilt the ruined city (present-day Mexico City). In addition, he fitted out many expeditions, including to the Moluccas and in the Gulf of California. Personally led the long march to Honduras (1524-1526), during which executed CuauhtцLmoc. Received notification of a call to Spain to testify. In a personal meeting with the Emperor Charles V in 1529 Cortes was able to win the monarch received the title of Marquis del Valle, and confirmed the title of captain-general. Executive power was limited to the appointment of Cortes in 1528 Audiencia (judicial administrative board), and in 1535 - Viceroy.
Constant friction with the Viceroy Antonio Mendoza led the Cortes in 1539 to seek justice for the monarch. However, analysis of complaints to the Council for Indian inhaled. In 1541 Cortes was involved in a military expedition to Algeria and miraculously escaped death in a shipwreck. Cortes died in Castillejo de la Cuesta near Seville on Dec. 2, 1547.