Benedetto Croce (Croce Benedetto)( Italian philosopher, historian, critic, publisher and political figure.)
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Biography Benedetto Croce (Croce Benedetto)
The representative of the neo-Hegelianism. Born February 25, 1866 in Peskasseroli, near L'Aquila (Italy), in the family, who owned land in the central part of the country. Croce's parents were killed in 1883 as a result of volcanic eruption. He lived in Naples, was educated at the University of Naples. Disappointed in university education, many engaged in self -. Professor at the University 1902-1920. He became a senator in 1910. From June 1920 to July 1921 was the minister of education in the office of DA Giolitti. Ideologist and leader of the Italian liberals in the 1930-1940's, an open opponent of the fascist regime of Mussolini. After the defeat of Italy in World War II Croce entered the Committee of National Liberation. Croce died in Naples on Nov. 20, 1952.
Croce - a prominent representative of Italian idealism, grew directly out of 'Naples' version of Hegelianism 19. (B. Spaventa, F. De Sanctis), as well as from more distant sources - the philosophy of the Italian thinker 18. J. Vico. This direction is characterized by the idealism of Hegel's absolute denial and approval as the only being creative and generating itself reason. Perhaps the most significant for understanding the formation of Croce's views of his autobiography (Contributo alla critica di me stesso, 1951). In the early period of creativity Croce was influenced by Marxism, was a pupil Labriola. Philosopher himself called his doctrine of 'absolute idealism'.
Croce's philosophy in a systematic manner set out in 4 volumes under the title Philosophy of mind (Filosofia dello spirito). The first two volumes - Aesthetics as the science of expression and as a general linguistics (Estetica come scienza dell'espressione e linguistica generale, . 1902), and logic as the science of pure concepts (Logica come scienza del concetto puro, . 1909), . devoted to describing the theoretical activity of the mind, . including artistic creativity and conceptual thinking; recent volumes - Philosophy of practice: Economics and Ethics (Filosofia della pratica,
. Economia ed etica, 1909) and Theory and History of Historiography (Teoria e storia della storiografia, 1917), contain an analysis of the practical side of reason - the economy and ethics - which finds its highest expression in the history of. Among other works Croce - History as a way of thinking and the action (La storia come pensiero e come azione, 1938), philosophy, poetry, history (Filosofia, poesia, storia, 1951) and many others. The most significant contribution to the thinker in aesthetics and philosophy of history.
According to Croce, art is an expression of the creative mind. Creativity - the most important activities of the mind, without him knowing it is impossible. Thus, the art - the beginning of any theory. In this initial perception of inwardly experienced intuition is the outward expression. Express themselves not only artists, but all people. The measure of success is excellent for self-expression. This theory is partly represents a sharp break with the idea of the beautiful as the property of the physical object and gives an example of a more general rejection of naturalism, neo-Hegelianism. Many papers Croce has applied this approach to the interpretation of art and literature, founded a whole school of art criticism and art criticism.
Croce's philosophy of history is also a revolt against naturalism. History as the creation of this is the act of thinking and therefore also a philosophy. History - a philosophy, a philosophy - a history. In fact, history is the highest form of philosophy, the culmination of the spirit, begins with the artistic expression. Since, according to Croce, there is only reason, historical narrative is always a philosophical nature, as is the present, interprets the past and in this interpretation literally his Tvoryashchee. Describe the past - means to make value judgments present, each generation should re-write history. Therefore history - it is a philosophy. At the same time value judgment is a manifestation of the creative nature of mind, and that its activity becomes part of the history of mind. Therefore philosophy - is the story.
Croce has written numerous works and essays on history, literature and politics, and made a significant contribution to the historiography appeared to the founder of 'ethical-political school', as well as in literature and languages. He was a founder in 1903 (with D. Gentile) culture-known magazine 'criticism' ( 'La Critica'), . which published almost all his works, . Director of the publishing house Latertsa 'in Bari, . founder of the Italian Institute for Historical Research in Naples.,