Victor Cousin (Cousin Victor)( The French philosopher, activist and historian of education)
Comments for Victor Cousin (Cousin Victor)
Biography Victor Cousin (Cousin Victor)
Born in Paris on November 28, 1792 in the family craftsman. Because the case was educated at the LycцLe Charlemagne, and then in the Superior Pedagogical Institute. He began teaching at the Higher Teachers College in 1815 with lectures on the philosophy of common sense. Been influenced by Kant. He traveled to Germany, where he met with GWF Hegel, Schelling and F. F. Jacobi. Privacy Cousin constitutional rule led to his dismissal in 1820. In 1828 was reinstated, . and from 1830, . after the enthronement of Louis Philippe, . enjoyed the full support of the Government, . became a peer of France and a member of the Council of State, . member of the French Academy and since 1834 - rector of the Higher Pedagogical Institute,
My cousin has developed a philosophical system which he gave (apparently unsuccessful) the name of eclecticism, but his critics (with good reason) - spiritualism. He shared the whole philosophy on the following four types of systems: sensationalism, idealism, skepticism and mysticism, seeing in each of these elements of truth. The philosophy of eclecticism - the culmination of a historical process: it arises from the elements that constitute a particular historical epoch. My cousin was in every respect a man modest and prone to compromise. Due to its caution against extremes, on the one hand, Condillac's sensationalism and atheism, and determinism, to which he gave, but on the other hand - and the Catholic traditions of scholasticism, he won wide public recognition. Rare oratorical talent to make philosophy popular among several generations of students. In 1840, after Guizot became prime minister's cousin, was appointed Minister of Education. Contrary to the wishes of the Catholics, he kept teaching of philosophy in high school, however, forced teachers to submit their idea of what exactly the philosophy of teaching. In 1848 he was forced to resign. Cousin fruitfully worked in the field of history of philosophy, thanks to him, the subject became fashionable. Published the work of Proclus, Abelard, Descartes, and Maine de Biran, translated Plato.
In contrast to the skepticism of David Hume and other thinkers of the 18., Cousin adhered psychological approach, which carves its way through the work of F. Maine de Biran in France and Thomas Reid in Scotland. In the later period of creativity under the influence of Schelling's Cousin added to this approach, the idea of the romantic sort of cosmological. Philosophy must always start with an analysis of consciousness. This analysis reveals three main types of evidence: sensation gives us a first acquaintance with the world (as taught Scottish School of Common Sense), our own work reveals the fact of human freedom, and reason allows us to understand some fundamental and important principles of objective,
. Mind two main principles: substance and causality. Thanks to them, we understand how I and the world (I'm not-I, in Fichte's terminology) are connected to the latter substance, God, causal creative activity which gives a rational structure of the Universe. Psychology thus ends ontology and gives sanction to the moral and aesthetic principles
. Among the works Cousin - The philosophy of sensationalism in the 18 century (Philosophie sensualiste au 18e siecle, . 1819); introduction to philosophical fragments (Fragments philosophique, . 1826) and new philosophical fragments (Nouveaux fragments philosophique, . 1828), The Metaphysics of Aristotle (De la,
. mtaphysique d'Aristote, . 1835); the truth, . beauty and goodness (Du vrai, . du beau et du bien, . 1836); course on the history of modern philosophy (Cours d'histoire de la philosophie moderne, . 1841-1846); Essays on Pascal (Etudes sur Pascal, . 1842); a number of studies on prominent women 17,
. My cousin died in Cannes (France) January 13, 1867.