Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (Lavoisier Antoine Laurent)( French chemist.)
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Biography Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (Lavoisier Antoine Laurent)
Born August 26, 1743 in Paris, the family lawyer. He studied at the Lyceum Mazarin and the Faculty of the University of Paris. However, the practice of law he was not attracted to, and after graduating from university he took up geology, physics and chemistry. In 1765 presented his first scientific article in the French Academy. In 1766 his competitive work won the gold medal of the Academy. In 1767, Lavoisier, together with the famous mineralogist, a family friend Gettarom made a geological expedition in several mountainous areas of France, has collected and examined samples of rocks, and in 1768 was the geological map of the country. In the same year he was elected an associate of the Paris Academy of Sciences as a young scientist, full of promise.
In 1769 Lavoisier made a step that defined his material well-being, but ultimately led to his death: he became general director of the Company leases'. This organization took at the mercy of state taxes, contributing to the treasury annually a certain amount, and then collect taxes from the population, leaving a difference. Thereby acquiring a vast state, Lavoisier established excellent chemical laboratories equipped her with expensive precision instruments and spent large amounts of experimental work. Laboratory visited such well-known chemists, as Berthollet and Furkrua, mathematicians Monge, Lagrange, Laplace, famous foreign scientists Franklin, Watt, Priestley.
In 1772 Lavoisier became a full member of the Academy of Sciences, in 1785 was its director, has reorganized the agency. In different years, scientists have held several public office: he was director of the Department of Agriculture (1775), . members of Parliament in Orleans (1787), . member of the Commission of Weights and Measures (1790), . Commissioner of the National Treasury (1791), . member of the Commission on Farming (1785),
. In 1791 the Government decided to dissolve 'the Company leases', and in August 1792 Lavoisier lost his ability to work in the laboratory of the Royal Arsenal. In November 1793 the Revolutionary Committee ordered the arrest of all members 'of the Company leases'. The trial was held May 2, 1794, Lavoisier and 27 other members of the company were sentenced to death. Scientist had requested a stay of execution for a few days to present their latest results of chemical experiments, but his request was rejected. Lavoisier was guillotined in the Revolution Square in Paris on May 8, 1794.
Lavoisier's research played a prominent role in the development of chemistry 18. First and foremost, the establishment of a scientific theory of combustion, represented a reversal from the theory of phlogiston. His experiments on the combustion of substances Lavoisier began in 1772 and the end of the year, presented to the Academy seemed to him some important results. In the accompanying note he reported, . that the combustion of sulfur and phosphorus weight of combustion products becomes more, . than the weight of the precursors, . due to binding of air, . and the weight of litharge (lead oxide) in the recovery of lead to decreases, . thus allocated a significant amount of air,
. From their own experiments and prior experiments, Lavoisier, Priestley and Scheele knew that with inflammable substances binds only one fifth of the air, but the nature of this part of it was unclear. When Priestley told him in 1774 about the discovery of 'deflogistirovannogo air', he immediately realized that this is precisely the part of the air, which is connected to the combustion of inflammable substances. Repeating the experiments of Priestley, Lavoisier concluded that air consists of a mixture of 'life' (oxygen) and 'suffocating' (nitrogen) air and explained the process of combustion of compound materials with oxygen.
In 1877 the scientist made his theory of combustion at a meeting of the Academy of Sciences. His findings significantly weakened the foundations of the theory of phlogiston, and the final defeat it was applied research in water. In 1783, Lavoisier, repeating the experiments of Cavendish on the incineration of 'fuel' of air (hydrogen), concluded that 'water is not at all simple body', and is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. It can be decomposed by passing steam over red-hot rifle barrel. Last, he proved, together with the Corps of Engineers, Lieutenant J. Meunier.
One of the most important consequences of the work of Lavoisier was a radical transformation of the chemical language, expressed in the creation of a new chemical nomenclature. Her project in 1787 was presented to them by the Academy of Sciences together with Berthollet and other chemists. All substances proposed to split the chemical elements and compounds, and based on the concept of oxygen as the main chemical element are three classes of compounds: acids, bases and salts.
It should be noted also that Lavoisier was one of the founders of the thermochemistry. In 1783, together with Laplace he described constructed their ice calorimeter and determined the heat of combustion of a number of substances. Showed that when the breath is absorbed by oxygen and carbon dioxide is formed, ie. that breath like the combustion. In 1783-1784 Lavoisier and Laplace found that the process of respiration is a source of warmth for the animals.