ALE Jacques (Lacan Jacques)( French psychoanalyst.)
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Biography ALE Jacques (Lacan Jacques)
Born April 13, 1901 in Paris. He studied medicine, in 1932 he defended his thesis on the paranoid disorders. In the postwar years he taught psychoanalysis, led by the Paris Psychoanalytic Society. After the collapse of the organization in 1953 joined the newly formed French society psychoanalysis, . and with the split of the last and the actual except himself from the International Psychoanalytical Association was founded in 1964, Freud's school (dissolved it in 1980),
. From 1953 to 1980 Lacan led the famous workshops had a significant impact on the development of psychoanalysis. Lacan died in Paris on September 9, 1981
. The published works of Lacan form two groups - a collection of works of the 1930's, which appeared under the title of Texts (Ecrites) in 1966, and records of his seminars, published in 1973, his son in law and administration of archives Lacan, Jean-A.Millerom (for 1998 turned out 10 volumes )
. Publication of the texts of the first group Lacan created a reputation as one of the leading representatives of French structuralism. Seminars, wore an educational nature, were popular among Parisian intellectuals.
Main merit Lacan is a structuralist revision of Freudian psychoanalysis. Lacan drew on research K.Levi-Strauss, has applied to the ethnology of the principles of structural linguistics (Saussure, Troubetzkoy, Jakobson). Like Levi-Strauss, noticing the analogy between language and the phenomenon of kinship, Lacan interpreted the language as a structural condition is 'psychoanalytical' phenomena; itself unconscious 'structured like a language'. Lacan describes the phenomenon of displacement in terms of classical rhetoric of the text, namely as a process of metaphorical substitution. Another key phenomenon - the desire - is determined by Lacan as metonymy incessant search, source and destination of which is the imaginary primary loss, but in reality - the inevitable for a man as such 'lack of being'.
In further developing his theory of Lacan seeks to free psychoanalysis from the remnants biologism, which can be found in Freud's. The theory of instincts, turns to the concept of intersubjective relations, . revolving around specific objects (breasts, . feces, . view, . voice) and emerging as the two actors (especially the mother and child), . and between 'internal' and 'external',
. Similarly, exempt from the biological interpretation and the death instinct: Freud, it was understood as a desire to return to the lifeless state, . Lacan also attributes this desire to move around Nothing, . sooner or later becomes every finite creature,
Changes consistent with the theory and changes in the practice of psychoanalysis. The ratio of 'transfer', or 'transfer' that occurs between analyst and patient, Lacan and agonizes fakes on the model of relations between actors of the Platonic dialogue Feast - Socrates, Agathon and Alcibiades. The analyst must ask himself the question of desire, which motivates him. The usual requirement of psychoanalytic practice - the neutrality of the analyst, which should suppress any 'counter-transfer' - Lacan believed impossible. In his own psychoanalytic sessions, he constantly experimenting with their duration, for example, seeking to unpredictability for the patient, Lacan dramatically reduces the duration of the session. Such a violation of the rules has become one of the reasons for Lacan's exclusion from the International Psychoanalytical Association.
Lacan was the first major psychoanalyst who was trying to overcome the Freudian empiricism. The spectrum of ideas, attracted Lacan for a theoretical revision of psychoanalysis, is very wide: from Plato to Descartes, from Kant to Heidegger. Lacan engage in dialogue with his contemporaries - Jean-P.Sartrom and M.Merlo-Ponty (with the latter, as with Levi-Strauss, he linked the friendly relations). While philosophizing Lacan differs eclectic, to him showed great interest philosophers (eg, P. Legendre and G. Deleuze), literary and cultural studies (eg, S. Zizek). Lacan-inspired way of reading literary texts ( 'constellation of desires') in the 1970's and 1980's was recognized along with the 'deconstruction' Derrida and 'discourse' M. Foucault.
For the version of psychoanalysis that Lacan developed, characterized by claiming to be at a height of scientific thought of his time. In addition to structural linguistics and Lacanian psychoanalysis has included elements of game theory and cybernetics. In the later period Lacan persistently sought to formalize his theory and started topology.