Emanuel Lasker (Lasker Emanuel)( German chess champion, chess theorist, mathematician and philosopher.)
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Biography Emanuel Lasker (Lasker Emanuel)
Born in Berlinhene (West Prussia, now Berlinek, Poland) 24 December 1868 to a Jewish family. He studied at the gymnasium in Berlin, he learned to play chess, and because of this, gave up all other classes. Was transferred to a real school in Landsberg, where it is believed his parents, he will be hard to find a serious partner. After graduating from high school he entered the Faculty of Mathematics University of Berlin. In the same year won first place in the tournament germanskogo Chess Union in Breslau, has participated in several international tournaments, winning prizes.
In 1892, left Berlin and settled in London. To be able to study mathematics and philosophy, became a professional chess player, earning a living simultaneous chess and playing 'blind'. Won several victories in the national games in England, including over the strongest chess player at the time H. Blackburn, and then in the U.S.. He became world champion, having won a 1894 victory over B. Steinitz in a match held in New York, Philadelphia and Montreal. In the future, delivered victory to the numerous tournaments in St. Petersburg, Nuremberg, Paris and London, where he published a widely known book Common Sense in Chess (1895).
In 1902 he defended University of Erlangen dissertation for the degree of doctor of philosophy and mathematics, and then did not participate in the tournament until 1904. Published 'Chess Magazine Lasker' ( 'Lasker's chess magazine', 1904-1908). In 1907 came the first work of Lasker on the theory of struggle (struggle - Kampf). In 1911 once again walked away from chess, developing 'theory of the struggle' (mahologii) as part of his philosophical system, but already in 1914, brilliantly won the tournament on a representative in St. Petersburg with the participation of Alekhine and Capablanca. Again did in his chess career break, completed work on the main philosophical works of philosophy unfinalizability (Die Philosophie des Unvollendbaren, 1918).
In 1921, in Havana, gave the title of world champion H. R. Capablanca, whom he regarded as the embodiment of 'auto-style'. In subsequent years, with varying success Lasker played in several tournaments, . prepared to re-publish a revised version of the book Common Sense in Chess (Common sense in chess), . study mathematics and the general theory of games on the material of card games, . especially the bridge (the work of strategy card game, . 1928), . studied the Japanese game go,
. In 1935-1937 he lived in the Soviet Union and even held the position of the Institute of Mathematics of the USSR. In 1937 he left for the United States, where he graduated from the manuscript worldview player (Das Weltbild des Spieler). In 1940 came the publication of his last work of the Community of the future (The Community of the Future). Lasker died in New York on January 13, 1941
. Lasker is a representative of the unique - the psychological - the method of chess, . described in his philosophical writings and Textbook of chess (Lehrbuch des Schachspiels, . 1925) and against the 'dogmatism', . understanding of chess as a set of rules and their pattern of technical realization,
. 'The chess game is close to perfection. From it disappear elements of the game and the uncertainty. Too many in our time know: no, hence the need to guess: Maybe it's sad, but the knowledge brings with it death '. Considering a possible 'no man's death' chess, Lasker suggested in 1918 a reform of the rules of chess.
Noteworthy words of Einstein about the Lasker: 'Material wealth of Spinoza and his independence based on the polishing of optical glasses, in the life Lasker similar role played chess. But the fate of Spinoza was happy for his profession left free the mind, whereas chess is so firmly grasp the master intellect that his freedom and independence can not remain unaffected. "