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Le Corbusier (Le Corbusier)

( French architect and theorist of architecture, artist, designer.)

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(1887-1965)
Le Corbusier (real name - Charles-Edouard Jeanneret) was born in La Chaux-de-Fonds in Switzerland, Oct. 6, 1887. He studied architecture at the J. Hoffman in Vienna (1907), O. Perry in Paris (1908-1910), P. Behrens in Berlin (1910-1911). In 1922 with his cousin Pierre Jeanneret founded the architectural studio in Paris, they continued working together until 1940. In 1920 Le Corbusier and the poet P. Derme created a polemic avant-garde magazine 'Esprit Nouveau' (published in 1920-1925), from the pages of which sounded propaganda of ideas of functionalism. The books in architecture (1923), . Urbanism (1925) and in a number of articles, . published in the 'Esprit Nouveau', . Le Corbusier formulated his famous Five Principles of Modern Architecture (building on the free-standing pillars, . free composition facade, . ribbon windows, . flat roof with a terrace-garden, . free interior layout),
. These principles are embodied in the establishment of houses 'Savoy' in Poissy near Paris (1929), and then the hostel Swiss students on campus in Paris (1930-1932)
. Le Corbusier has several utopian urban projects, . included the organization of urban life in several vertical tiers, . regular city plan with the division into raznofunktsionalnye zone, . strictly ordered by the architecture and, . thus, . likening the work of the machines human activities (plan 'Voisin' for Paris and plans for a new device Buenos Aires, . Algeria, . Antwerp, etc.),
. One such project involves the reconstruction of Moscow on the regular plan, but absolutely no regard for its historical buildings and landscape features. In Russia, the project of Le Corbusier was built on Tsentrosojuz Butcher Street (1928-1933, with the participation of the architect ND Collie). He also owns one of the projects of the Palace of Soviets. Among the buildings of Le Corbusier 1930 - early 1940's - the building of the Salvation Army Center in Paris (1932-1933) and the Ministry of Education and Health in Rio de Janeiro (1937-1943, together with several other architects).

In 1940 Le Corbusier developed a system for harmonic values, based on the proportions of the human body, which was to be the starting point of architectural design, she was named 'Modulor'. In 1948-1952 he built in Marseilles 'dwelling' - 17-storey building with bright colors, equipped with solntserezami for which include the possibility of autonomous operation, but the idea was not implemented. Subsequently, they were created chapel of Notre-Dame-du-O in Ronshane (1950-1953), a master plan for the city and the administrative buildings in Chandigarh, . capital of the Indian state of Punjab (1950-1957), National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo (1957-1959); Arts Center at Harvard University in Keembridzhe in the U.S. (1964); hospital in Venice (1965),
.

Le Corbusier owns about 50 monographs and articles. The most famous of his works - to the architecture (Vers une architecture, 1923); Urbanism (Urbanisme, 1925), When the Cathedrals were White (Quand les cathdrales taient blanches, 1937); three human setting (Les Trois Etablissements humains, 1945). In 1918, together with Ozanfanom he became one of the founders of the movement of purism in painting.

Le Corbusier died in the French town of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin on Aug. 27, 1965.


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