Justus Liebig (Liebig Justus von)( German chemist.)
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Biography Justus Liebig (Liebig Justus von)
Born in Darmstadt, May 12, 1803. He studied at Bonn (1820), Erlangen (1821) universities, in 1822-1824 he worked at Zh.Gey-Lussac in Paris. Back in Erlangen, defended his doctoral dissertation. In 1824, on the recommendation of Humboldt was the position of professor of chemistry Gisenskogo University. From 1852 until his death was a professor at the University of Munich, since 1860 - President of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.
Liebig is credited with opening of organic compounds, the development of new methods of analysis of organic substances and the synthesis of new groups of compounds, the creation of theoretical foundations of organic chemistry. In 1832 Liebig, together with F. Wohler showed that in a number of transformations of benzoic acid - benzaldehyde - Benzoyl chloride is assimilated - benzoilsulfid group C6H5CO-, later called benzoyl, passes unchanged from one compound to another. Similarly, the group etilradikal stored in a number of alcohol - ether - ethyl chloride - ether nitric acid - ether benzoic acid. These works had contributed to the theory of radicals. Together with J. Dumas, Liebig investigated Polycarboxylic organic acids, proposed a classification of acids on their main. Studying the nature, structure and chemical transformations of alcohol and ether, has opened up new material: aldehyde, acetal, chloroform, chloral. Liebig has done a lot in Inorganic Chemistry. Studied halogens, bromine is received (but found it chloride, iodine). Investigated the activating effect of platinum, silver, lead, manganese, ie. created the preconditions for the emergence of a region called the current inorganic catalysis. Developed a number of methods of analytical chemistry: method of separating cobalt from nickel, the definition of hydrocyanic acid in medicinal substances, the determination of oxygen, etc..
Liebig considered one of the founders of Agricultural Chemistry and Biochemistry. He explained the theory of mineral nutrition of plants and created a scientific basis for improving soil fertility. The role of carbon dioxide and related nitrogen in plant physiology. He studied the problem of food, offered to share food on fats, proteins and carbohydrates, found that fat and carbohydrates are used for the body a kind of fuel. Developed some types of baby food.
Liebig radically restructured existed before him the teaching of chemistry, introducing a large scale laboratory classes and independent study students. His system spread beyond Germany, and still is common in many countries.
In 1824 Liebig in Gieц?en first created in Germany teaching laboratories for chemistry, where scientists were working from different countries. From the scientific school of Liebig came A. KekulцL von Stradonitz, A. Wurtz, A. Hoffmann, NN Zinin, A. Resurrection, etc.. In 1832 he founded the 'Annals of Pharmacy' ( 'Annalen der Pharmacie'), . oldest chemical journal, . that year the death of the scientist was renamed 'Libihovskie annals of Chemistry and Pharmacy' ( 'Liebigs Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie'), . together with F. Wohler and J. Poggendorfom published Dictionary-Catalog of Pure and Applied Chemistry (Handwrterbuch der reinen und angewandten Chemie, . 1837-1856),
. Among his major works - Organic chemistry in its applications to physiology and pathology (Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie und Pathologie, . 1842), . Guidelines for organic analysis (Anleitung zur Analyse organischer Krper, . 1837) and the natural laws of agriculture (The natural laws of husbandry, . 1865),
. Liebig Died in Munich April 18, 1873.