Carl Linnaeus (Linnaeus Carolus)( Swedish naturalist.)
Comments for Carl Linnaeus (Linnaeus Carolus)
Biography Carl Linnaeus (Linnaeus Carolus)
Born May 23, 1707 in Roshulte in the province of Smцгland in the family of the village pastor. Parents wanted to become a priest Charles, but his youth fascinated with natural history, particularly botany. These classes encourage local doctor, after consulting Linnaeus choose the medical profession, because at that time botany was considered as part of Pharmacology. In 1727, Linnaeus entered the University of Lund, moved to the University of Uppsala, where the teaching of botany and medicine were delivered better. In Uppsala worked with Olaf Celsius, a theologian and amateur botanist who participated in preparing the book Biblical botany (Hierobotanicum) - a list of plants mentioned in the Bible. In 1729 as a New Year gift Celsius Linney wrote an essay introduction to the engagement of plants (Praeludia sponsalorum plantarun), which is poetically described the process of their reproduction. In 1731, a thesis, Linnaeus became an assistant professor of botany O. Rudbeck. The following year traveled to Lapland, collecting samples of plants. Uppsala scientific society to subsidize this work, has published about it only a brief report - Flora of Lapland (Flora Lapponica). Detailed work of Linnaeus on plants of Lapland was published only in 1737, and vividly written diary of the expedition Lapland life (Lachesis Lapponica) came after the death of the author in the Latin translation.
In 1733-1734 Linney has lectured and conducted research work at the university, has written several books and articles. However, the continuation of medical careers traditionally required a degree abroad. In 1735, Linnaeus entered Harderveyksky University in Holland, where he received his doctorate in medicine. In the Netherlands, made friends with the famous H. Boerhaave Leiden doctor, who recommended the mayor of Amsterdam, George Linnaeus Kliffortu, passionate gardener, brought together a collection of exotic plants. Kliffort made Linnean his personal doctor and asked him to identify and classify them bred specimens. The result was a treatise Kliffortovsky garden (Hortus Cliffortianus), published in 1737
. In 1736-1738 in the Netherlands took the first edition of Linnaeus's works: in 1736 - Systema Naturae (Systema naturae), . Botanical Library (Bibliotheca botanica) and Principles of Botany (Fundamenta botanica); in 1737 - Criticism of Botany (Critica botanica), . Genera of plants (Genera plantarum), . Flora of Lapland (Flora Lapponica) and Kliffortovsky garden (Hortus Cliffortianus); in 1738 - Classes of plants (Classes plantarum), . Collection birth (Corollarium generum) and sexual method (Methodus sexualist),
. In 1738 Linney edited a book about fish Ichthyology (Ichthyologia), remained unfinished after the death of his friend Peter Artedi. Botanical work, especially the genera of plants, formed the basis of modern taxonomy of plants. They Linnaeus described and applied the new classification system, greatly simplifies the determination of organisms. In the method, which he called 'sexual', emphasis was placed on the structure and number of reproductive structures of plants, ie. stamens and pistils.
An even more ambitious effort was well-known system of nature, an attempt to spread all the creatures of nature - animals, plants and minerals - in classes, orders, genera and species, and establish rules for their identification. Revised edition of this treatise out of 12 times during the life of Linnaeus, and several times reprinted after the death of scientist.
In 1738 Linney on behalf Klifforta visited botanical center in England. Received an invitation to work in Holland and Germany, but chose to return to Sweden and in 1739 opened a medical practice in Stockholm. In 1741 he was appointed professor of medicine at Uppsala University, and in 1742 - Professor of Botany. The following years he mainly taught, but at the same time made several scientific expeditions to little-studied area of Sweden. Collectors all over the world sent him copies of the unknown forms of living, and he described in his books, the best finds.
In 1745 Linnaeus published his Flora of Sweden (Flora Suecica), in 1746 - Sweden's Fauna (Fauna Suecica), in 1748 - Uppsala garden (Hortus Upsaliensis). In Sweden and abroad continued to go out new editions of Systema Naturae. Some of them, especially the sixth (1748), tenth (1758) and twelfth (1766), containing additional material. Famous 10 th and 12 th editions become encyclopedic multi-volume, containing a brief description of all known at the time animals, plants and minerals. Article about each supplemented with information on its geographical distribution, habitat, behavior, and varieties. It is in the 10 th edition of Linnaeus first gave a double (binary or binomial) names of all known species of animals it. In 1753 completed the work of Plant Species (Species plantarum); it contains descriptions and binary names of all plant species, which determined the modern botanical nomenclature. In his book Philosophy of Botany (Philosophia botanica), published in 1751, Linnaeus gnomic outlined the principles that guided him in the study of plant.
The binary system assumes that each species of plants and animals is the only thing belonging to him alone the scientific name (binomial), consisting of only two words (Latin or Latinized). The first of them - the total for the whole group close to each other forming a kind of biological. Second - the species epithet - is an adjective or noun, which refers only to one species of this genus. For example, a lion and a tiger to be included in the genus 'cat' (Felis), called, respectively, and Felis leo Felis tigris, and the wolf from the kind of dog (Canis) - Canis lupus. Linnaeus himself did not attach a binary system of special significance and emphasized the polynomial, ie. verbose title, description, and the corresponding binomial himself regarded as a simple name (nomen trivialis), with no scientific value and only facilitates the memorization of the form.
Died Linnaeus in Uppsala, 10 January 1778.