David Herbert Lawrence (Lawrence David Herbert)( English novelist, poet, essayist.)
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Biography David Herbert Lawrence (Lawrence David Herbert)
Born September 11, 1885 in the miner's village Eastwood (Nottinghamshire County), the fourth child in the family of miner. After graduating from Nottingham boys' school, Lawrence worked for several months at the factory of medical equipment. Four years working as a teacher, not having the appropriate degree, then completed a two-year teachers' courses at the University of Nottingham and began teaching at the school on the outskirts of London. Then he began to work on a novel, and in 1909 he sent several poems in the magazine 'Inglish rivyu' ( 'English Review'), edited by F. M. Ford. Ford has published several short stories and poems of Lawrence, helped to publish the novel The White Peacock (The White Peacock, 1911) and introduced the Lawrence metropolitan literary circles. At this time, Lawrence has worked on a second novel, The violator (The Trespasser, 1912), and the first version of Sons and Lovers. Mother's death from cancer in December 1910 deeply shocked writer. Proper bad health forced him to leave teaching and concentrate entirely on the literary work.
The spring of 1912, Lawrence escaped to Europe with Frieda Weekley (nee von Richthofen), wife of Nottingham Professor E. Weekley. In 1913 was published his first collection of poems and the novel Sons and Lovers (Sons and Lovers). Then he began working on a novel tentatively called Sisters (The Sisters) - then he collapsed on the Rainbow (The Rainbow, 1915) and Women in Love (Women in Love, 1920). In 1914 he published the first collection of short stories by Lawrence Prussian officer (The Prussian Officer). After the entry of Britain into the war Lawrence was closed leaving the country. Rainbow banned immediately after publication in 1915, and for Women in Love Lawrence never been able to find a publisher (by the author's novel was published in New York in 1920).
In 1916 saw the first book of travel writing writer's Twilight in Italy (Twilight in Italy). Two years later, Lawrence started to publish his work in the journal Studies on the classic American Literature (Studies in Classic American Literature), . became the first major study of the works of such major American writers, . as H. Melville and Nathaniel Hawthorne,
In 1919, Lawrence left England and since then only occasionally navedyvalsja home. He travels to Italy, Sicily, Ceylon, Australia, arrives in the U.S. (where he lives on a ranch near Taos, pc. New Mexico), visit Mexico. He frantically works in difficult conditions, . overcoming illness; from his pen the novel dead girl (The Lost Girl, . 1920), . Flute Aaron (Aaron's Rod, . 1922), . Kangaroo (Kangaroo, . 1923) and the Feathered Snake (The Plumed Serpent, . 1926), . several collections of essays, . many stories and poems,
. Published by Lawrence book Psychoanalysis and the unconscious (Psychoanalysis and Unconscious, 1921) and fantasies of the subconscious (Fantasia of Unconscious, 1922) opened access to its world -. In 1926 he completed the first of the three options for Lady Chatterley's Lover (Lady Chatterley's Lover) and in 1928 issued by private subscription the final text of the novel. In 1929, on charges of indecency police authorities have closed an exhibition of paintings by Lawrence in London. Lawrence died in southern France, in Vence, March 2, 1930.
Although many consider the best part of the heritage of the writer's stories, yet that novel - Sons and Lovers, Rainbow, Women in Love and Lady Chatterley's Lover - can be called an outstanding writer Lawrence 20 in. Sons and Lovers - art study of destructive forces that influence the mind, will and spirit. In addition to the inherent power of the letter writer, the ability to subtly convey 'sense of place', affects its ability to accurately recreate the social, psychological and historical situation of England since the Industrial Revolution. In Sons and Lovers Lawrence not only describes his personal difficulties: he introduces them in terms of more significant social and historical themes. The same trend in the Rainbow, . where Lawrence shows, . as a modern self-consciousness emerged gradually in the family Brenguenov, . Farmers from central England, close blood ties, . linking the family in the years, . preceding the Industrial Revolution, . weaken; writer portrays love relationships of three generations Brenguenov, . last in which, . Ursula, . - Modern (and lonely) woman, . bright and strong personality,
. While in Women in Love Ursula finds a pair, in the new novel, there is no social optimism of the Rainbow. The shadow of World War fell on the book, and although Lawrence never directly speak about the war, it constantly reminds me bitter tone and foreboding of inevitable cultural impoverishment of Europe.
In the postwar period, Lawrence finds that little attempt to save a new social consciousness - to change the very social fabric. All citizens must obey the will of one person - the person, such karleylevskim 'heroes', the living embodiment of the divine, Plato's philosopher-king. This idea was expressed by the writer in the novels of the so-called 'leaders' - Flute Aaron, Kangaroo and feathered serpent.
In his last novel, Lady Chatterley's Lover, Lawrence expresses little hope that the few overjoyed 'closeness' men and women can escape the pressure of circumstances.