Born November 10, 1483 in the town of Eisleben in Thuringia. His father, Hans Luther
, a native of the peasants, was miner and later started a six foundries; mother, Margarita, also came from the peasant class. Martin
brought up strictly, the education he received in church schools, which was dominated by harsh manners. In 1501 he entered the University of Erfurt and in 1505 he graduated with a degree of Master of Arts. Then he turned to the study of law, but, apparently, career lawyer answered the wishes of his father rather than his own. Luther
has long tormented by the question of the fate of man in the world. His era was a period of this death cult, which originated a century ago after the epidemics 'black death' - the plague, but the greatest fear he inspired not even death, and the subsequent trial and the threat of eternal damnation. In July 1505, when Luther
returned to the university, to visit with his parents, he was caught in the storm path. Falling to the ground with terrible lightning, he cried out in horror, turning to the patron saint of his father: 'St. Anna, save me! I'll be a monk '. Fulfilling this pledge, he soon joined the Augustinian Order, distinguished by strict statute.
Vows and monastery. In September 1506, Luther
brought the past vows, and in May 1507 became the priest. The following year he was transferred to Wittenberg University, where he taught logic and physics, and in 1510 was sent with the request in Rome. In 1512 Wittenberg University awarded him a doctorate in theology, he quickly moved into the teaching field, and regularly preached in the parish church. But old fears continued to pursue it. Initially he had hoped to win paradise harsh way of life, but soon came to believe that man can not make something so good, that would allow him to rightfully claim the grace of God. Having carefully studied the system of ecclesiastical penance, Luther
is satisfied that the sins that he was unable to overcome and eradicated, may still be forgiven. He discovered that can not even confess all their sins: some of them escape from the memory, while others occur at all unconsciously, so that people can not see his own sinfulness before God the judge did not indicate to them the finger. Mystical Path, which consists in the rejection of any struggle and hope for a miracle and the grace of God, does not seem to him a satisfactory solution, since for Luther
's God was a 'devouring fire'.
Teaching in Wittenberg. The solution came to Luther
not as a result of sudden inspiration, but as a result of reading SW. Scripture, which he had to learn especially closely when he was appointed to the chair of biblical exegesis at Wittenberg University. After preparing and reading in the period from 1513 to 1516 lectures, . on explanations of the Psalms and the epistles of the Apostle Paul to the Romans and Galatians, . Luther
came to believe, . that the salvation of man depends solely on God's grace, . which became available only through the sacrificial death of Christ,
. Christ - this is, first and foremost, not the terrible Judge, condemning the sinners, and Redeemer, convert to be crucified. To save a person needs only to believe and accept all that God has done for him, though his own sinfulness, can never be completely overcome. This belief formed the basis of Luther
's theology, which became the center of the doctrine of justification by faith.
With the official church doctrine, Luther
disagreed on one point: he strongly rejected the very possibility for a person to do something, which brings it closer to his salvation. Church taught that through the grace of God gives man the ability to fulfill his commandments. Man is free to reject this grace, but if he accepts it and does good deeds, it is charged to his credit. Luther
also argued that, when good deeds performed with an eye to the future retribution, this is not a merit, as a sin worthy of damnation.
Indulgences for the Cathedral of St.. Peter. The reason for Luther
's decisive break with the Catholic Church has become a well-known practice of selling indulgences. The term 'pardon' means bestowed the church exemption from punishment for sins. Initially, it was possible to get an exemption only from the punishment imposed by the Pope on the ground, but half a century before Luther
's papal authority was extended also to the punishment imposed by God in purgatory. Some of the pope were not only exempt from penances, but also to forgive sins. Have obtained a release of the material is paid for by donations to the established rate (depending on the solvency of the subject). The rationale behind all this practice is the theory, . according to which Christ and the saints of their exploits have earned much more, . than required for their own salvation, . thus laying the 'treasury of good works', . whose father may dispose of the benefit of other people,
The privilege of selling special indulgences, provoked the indignation of Luther
, was granted by Pope Leo X Albrecht, Archbishop of Mainz, Magdeburg and Halbershtadtskomu. The proceeds were to go to the construction of the Cathedral of St.. Peter. In fact, half the money himself departed Albrecht: he was paying for their loans, through which could buy a second archbishopric in Rome. Distribution of indulgences by Johann Tetzel was requested, a Dominican monk, already available in this case, considerable experience. In the accompanying indulgence literacy announced that it has granted forgiveness of sin, in addition, it includes provisions that bought indulgences for loved ones find in Purgatory, and thereby relieve themselves need no repentance. Tetzel assured his listeners:
As soon as the coin in the coffer tingle,
The soul from purgatory will fall away. Ninety-five Theses
. Subsequent works. Luther at Wartburg
. Marriage and the last years