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-???? Giuseppe (Mazzini Giuseppe)

( Italian patriot and writer, who played an important role in the first phase of the movement for national liberation and liberal reforms in the 19.)

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Biography -???? Giuseppe (Mazzini Giuseppe)
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(1805-1872)
Born June 22, 1805 in Genoa, who was at that time under the rule of Napoleon. His father was a famous physician and professor of anatomy. Even as a child Mazzini has shown itself as a bright personality. He knew French literature, was fond of romanticism and admired 'democratic writers' - Victor Hugo, Jules Michelet, Edgar Quinet and George Sand.

Paul of Mazzini could become literature and art, if not for his passion for the ideas of liberty. Italy has suffered from foreign domination and political fragmentation, and Mazzini believed that the situation can change only the revolutionary action. When he was little more than 20 years, he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari, but soon became disenchanted with him because of the conservation elements of ideology in his materialist philosophy 18. In 1830 he was arrested by the Government of Piedmont, a few months later released and deported from the country. Most of the life of Mazzini spent in exile: first in France, then in Switzerland, and after 1837 - in London.

Ideas and methods. Mazzini everywhere preached individual freedom and national liberation, not only in Italy but across Europe. His credo was: 'I love my country because I love all the country'. He believed that all European nations should live in equality and brotherhood within the natural boundaries assigned to them by God. Mazzini did not believe that national unity and independence should be granted Cyperus rulers or achieved through diplomatic intrigues. He also rejects French 'leaderism'. On the concept of Mazzini, the goals of nationalism and liberalism are given by God, and, consequently, their achievement is the inalienable right of all peoples.

In 1831 Mazzini founded in Marseille, a secret organization 'Young Italy'. Its aim was to turn Italy into a united, independent and free country with a republican system. Soon, similar associations ( 'Young Switzerland', 'Young Germany', etc.) have appeared in other countries. Their organizers saw their task in bringing together the efforts and organization of uprisings in several countries under the slogans of liberty, fraternity and peace for the whole of Europe.

Submission of Mazzini on the new Europe, of course, involved the destruction of the monarchy in Austria-Hungary, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. He wanted to federated countries such as Germany, Italy and the land from the Baltic to the Aegean and Black Seas. Russia, he wanted to compensate for its loss of territory in Europe, giving it the colonialist mission to Asia. Mazzini believed that in the 20. nationalism has spread beyond Europe. Indeed, in his later works were a source of inspiration for many of the leaders of Asian and African.

Meanwhile, in real political life of Mazzini was an idealist. When, in 1848 to Italy, a wave of revolutions, the great patriot, even decided to forgo his republican beliefs, expecting that this will lead to unification. However, the revolt led by the King of Piedmont and Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II was defeated. In 1849 was abolished by the secular power of the Pope in the Papal States. The Roman Republic was established, managed by a triumvirate, in which Mazzini was the main post. Although this republic has fallen under the blows of the French troops sent by Louis Bonaparte, the beleaguered government of Rome under the influence of Mazzini demanded that the capital of unified Italy began this city. The long road to unification ended a diplomatic agreement between Napoleon III and Count Cavour in the military support of France.

Mazzini died March 10, 1872 in Pisa.


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