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Mazepa, Ivan Stepanovich KOLEDINSKY

( Ukrainian state and military leader.)

Comments for Mazepa, Ivan Stepanovich KOLEDINSKY
Biography Mazepa, Ivan Stepanovich KOLEDINSKY
photo Mazepa, Ivan Stepanovich KOLEDINSKY
Exact biographies Mazepa and data about its origin is not available.
.
. Some historians consider him a natural Pole (Voltaire, . Leclerc, . Golikov, . Simonovsky, . Lesyur) and called "the Polish gentry; other, . (City, . Shafronsky), . as well as his contemporary, . famous church figure Feofan Prokopovich, . argue, . it comes from the right bank of the gentry and was born about 1640 in the village Mazepitsah, . near White Church,
. The question of whether his entire family of Orthodox, Catholic, or Uniate, has not been elucidated, although his mother was Orthodox. Education at that time he was very good: in soevershenstve possessed not only Polish, but also in Latin, and German. From his youth was at the court of the King of Poland, which took the manners, customs and attitudes of the Polish court circles, and his career in the Polish high society. Unexpectedly, this career was interrupted. As a result of reckless affair with a married woman, Mazeppa found himself far from Warsaw, in the part of the Dnieper, which was then under the rule Doroshenka. The devotees said that the betrayed husband Mazepa, punished his whip and ordered to attach him to a horse, which brought him to Ukraine.

In early 1674 we find Mazepa already in the role of the Cossack elders and surrounded by hetman Doroshenko. The last he was sent to the Crimean Tatars to ask for help, but the way it caught the Cossacks, and, on the orders of Koshevogo Cerca, he, as an agent hostile to Moscow, and the Cossacks Doroshenko, was taken to Samoilowitsch, and then to Moscow. At the request of Hetman Mazepa Samoilovych not been exiled or punished, and he was allowed to return and settle down on the left bank.
.
. Mazeppa quickly managed to gain the trust Samoilovich, from whom he was a teacher and educator of his sons.
.
. A few years Mazeppa is Captain-General, that is, one of the highest dignitaries and closest associates Hetman
. His quick nomination of Mazeppa was obliged to his good education, outstanding ability and great diplomatic experience gained in the court of the Polish king. On his own moral qualities with respect to religion, love for Russia, Ukraine, unselfishness - the views of historians disagree.

. Characteristics Mazepa
.
. Grushevskii and all separative historians Mazepa erected on a pedestal, and ascribe to him all possible civil and human virtues
. In their presentation, it is not only highly educated and very intelligent man (which no one disputes), but also an idealist, who gave all their strength and ability to the cause of freedom, welfare and prosperity of Russia, Ukraine and the ancestral Orthodox faith. The builder and patron of the Orthodox churches and monasteries, the trustee of Arts and Sciences, a fighter for freedom and prosperity of its people.

An entirely different portrait Mazepi give his opponents. Historian Bantysh-Kamensky in its, , . History of Little Russia "(Part III, . 1830) gives a characterization Mazepa, . this one chronicler of contemporary Ukrainian Mazeppa: 'Endowed by nature an extraordinary mind, . Having received an excellent education with the Jesuits, . Mazeppa except malorossiyskogo knew Latin language, . Polish and German, had the gift of words and art to persuade,
. But with cunning and caution Vygovsky It combines anger, vindictiveness and lyubostyazhenie BRYUKHOVETSKAYA, surpassed Doroshenka in popularity, all the same them - with ingratitude. "
.
. Characteristics of the diametrically opposite statements separatists.
.
. The truth lies somewhere in between, probably even closer to the latter characteristic, than to the ideal portrait of Mazepa, which give the separatists.
.
. Undoubtedly, Mazepa was education, and smarter than most of his contemporaries
. But his mind from his earliest years had been poisoned by concepts of the gentry environment, from which he came, and distorted by the court in the atmosphere of the Polish royal court full of flattery, dissimulation and iskatelstva. For the people he was a stranger and for the benefit of the people he was not at all to life. About Mazeppa can justifiably say that without any foundation said Grushevskii of Bogdan Khmelnitsky: 'the people for him was a means to achieve their goals ". The objectives of these were the same - power and wealth.
.
. Lacking from our ancestors nor riches, nor peculiar nobility of origin, in which many people come to power, Mazeppa went towards purchase of power at first, but through the power and wealth, and is steadily going down this path, throughout his life
. It is easily entered into the confidence of the powers and through them he introduced to the power, but when opportunity offered, clever intrigue of overthrowing or betray their benefactors, and sometimes take their place. True to the court of the Polish king, . particularly trusted ambassador to the Tatars Doroshenka, . right hand Hetman Samoilovych, . initiator his sverzhneniya and Deputy, . pet of a powerful Golitsyn, . trustee of Peter and his companion in many campaigns - these are the main stages of life Mazepa,
. Each stage of this has numerous documented and challenge them there is no possibility. They can only falsely represent and portray, and what do forgers of history - Ukrainian chauvinists separatists.
.
. The last stage - a bet on the Swedes was the only one erroneous calculation made in the life of a fine diplomat, a clever and unscrupulous man, what was the Mazeppa.
.
. In the light of historical events and accounting situation at that time can not be denied that the calculation of Mazepa had a very good chance of success
. He is obsessed Charles XII at Poltava victory, calculation Mazepi certainly would be justified. As expected from Russia, Ukraine would have created a special principality with Mazepa headed. Of course, not independent, as claimed, ignoring the truth, the separatists, and of the Commonwealth of Poland, with the gracious patronage of Sweden. Together, Poland and Sweden, . people of Rus-Ukraine, . not recycled for Mazepa, . would not have been in obedience, . Jesuits would continue its aggression, . interrupted Khmelnytsky Uprising, . and Rus-Ukraine would be greatly okatolichena and opolyachena, . and its people would be brought up in enmity and hatred to brotherly Russian people.,
.
. But the last bid Mazepa was defeated, calculation mistake - and the entire history of Russia started in other ways.
.
. Penultimate same rate - in Russia and Peter - was justified and gave the left bank of 21 year on a quiet life, without any hostile intrusions, and Mazeppa 21 genus of power (1687-1708).

. Board Mazepa
.
. At the beginning of his reign Mazeppa, without a political horizon no room for other combinations, and given how popular sentiment, and strengthening of Russia and the weakening of Poland chose the path of rapprochement and integration with Russia.
.
. It is interesting to understand the sentiments are Mazeppa 'articles, which were signed by Mazepa and the sergeant, on the one hand, and Prince Golitsyn - with another, while joining Mazepa's office on 7 th August 1687
. Section 12th of these articles reads as follows: 'Getman and elders must seek to connect people with malorossiyskogo velikorossiyskim through marriages and other ways, . Why Little Russia the people are allowed free passage in the city velikorossiyskie.,
.
. Another interesting thing is that the proposal to this paragraph in the 'Articles' came from Mazeppa, as this can be seen from the reports of Prince Golitsyn
. Both documents are preserved and are in the Central State Archive of Ancient Acts in Moscow.
.
. It is remarkable to recall the fact that when signing the "Articles" Mazeppa, insisted that the hetman's residence - Baturin was billeted Moscow strelets regiment and received the consent of Golitsyn
. Documents on this preserved in the same archive.
.
. The above is absolutely indisputable historical facts carefully hushed chauvinists separatists, because they are in conflict with their false propaganda for the needs of separative 'history of Ukraine "
. Only in one place, in his 'Concise History of Ukraine ", edition 1917 Grushevskii mentions the content of paragraph 12 st'," but not as the decision of the section, as well as that, it was decided "in their preparation. About the same that it was made precisely by Mazepa, silent, as well as on the request of Mazeppa on permanent bases musketeers Regiment in Baturin.

Home Mazepa's reign was not without turmoil in Ukraine. When the first news of the overthrow of Samoilovych, . dissatisfied with his proteges Cossacks and the people have made violence against former friends Hetman, . in Prilutski shelf it came before, . that the Cossacks' thrown into the fire and covered with earth of his colonel and judge ", . as reported Grushevskii,
. In addition to the different regiments in the riots affected personal and property are many elders and tenants. With the help of Russian regiments, and loyal to the Cossacks, Mazeppa quickly eliminated unrest and purged the entire administrative apparatus, removed from it all supporters Samoilovich, replacing them true to themselves people. With many, he dealt very severely, otpravavshi them into exile in Siberia with infinitely distrusting him in Moscow. Not spared while even many of those who contributed to his election, and signed a denunciation of Samoilovich, for example, were displaced and deprived of the rank of colonel Dumitrashko and Gamaleya.
.
. While in Moscow at the time of the overthrow of the princess Sophia (in 1689-th year), . Mazepa was able to gain the confidence of Peter, . presenting his denunciation of Golitsyn with a detailed list of all, . what, . according Mazepa, . Golitsyn received from him in bribes, . extorting last,
. Since then, nearly 20 years, Mazeppa enjoyed exceptional trust and favor of Peter.
.
. In the internal management Mazeppa continued the policies of his predecessor Samoilovich, generously distributed generalists in hereditary lands, villages and hamlets, and farmers lade all new and new levies, to barshchina inclusive
. Universal of 1701-th year, he ordered all the peasants, even zhivushih on their own lands, a weekly two-day barshchina (panschinoy) in favor of petty landlords. Cossack regiments tried to keep away, and gladly sent them to different campaigns being undertaken by the Russian government. Instead, they carefully shaped wage-shelf 'Serdyukov, "and,,, kompanentsev and always insisted on the presence in Ukraine Russia's troops.

. Ratio people
.
. About how this attitude people say the words Grushevskogo, which can not be suspected of partiality - negative attitude to the Mazepa
. In his' History of Ukraine (p. 366), Grushevskii wrote: 'Of course, this new labor obligations terribly excited peasants, who were still fresh in the memory bezpomeschichi times, when it hosted on free soil. Bitter anger rose in him at the foreman, who so deftly and quickly managed to take it in their submission. Special breathing anger people on Hetman Mazepa, podozrevayuchi that it was he, as a gentleman and "Pole" as they called him, tried to start in Ukraine Polish Polish noblemen orders. Ever more suspicious of people of all undertakings, and his elders.
.
. Further, Grushevskii, biased wanting to blame everything on Moscow, wrote that the peasants' did not know this hand of Moscow government, and even were willing to believe that everything is done against his will "
. But no evidence that it was the 'hand of Moscow Government, of course, does not, because they do not exist and all of Mazeppa in the distribution of estates to his supporters Moscow did not intervene. None of this historic document has not survived any, even indirect references. But survived another document, from which, apparently, who oppressed, and who defended the peasants of Ukraine-Rus. This is an order of Tsar Peter Mazeppa - 'Little Russia to oversee the landlords to keep them from cruelty, extortion, works unnecessary ". (Archive Number. Little Russia, the case in 1693, "39).

The above words Grushevskogo deserve special attention because they are typical for him and for all its 'historical school'. Having set the historical truth in a subordinate position separative promotion and implementation of hostility towards Russia, he tries everything negative that was in the life of Rus-Ukraine attributed Moscow.
.
. So in the above case: not being able to refute his dislike of the population to Mazeppa, . Grushevskii dubious reception, . completely unsubstantiated, . claims, . that the reason for this dislike lies in the, . that pursued Mazeppa unpopular measures under pressure from Moscow,
. And undesirable for itself ignores the facts.

The mood of the people of Mazeppa, of course, knew, and is particularly concerned about the accusation that he 'Pole', that is, or Uniate Catholic. Hatred against the same Uniates and Catholics was the universal. In this matter the whole nation was unanimous. If in the social Mazeppa could count on the support of some of the upper classes and hired troops, the question of religious sway rare unanimity. One suspected Uniatism was enough for the most brutal lynching. In the church books of the former village Hundred Karabugova preserved description of dealing with a relative of the centurion, a relative suspected of Uniatism. He was beaten 'cues' (sticks), and then hung up before the church. It is interesting to note the fact that it remained unpunished. During the investigation, which produced the judge Nezhinsky Regiment discovered that hanging 'namovlyav (incite) pidkoritis nanu Rimskomu ". That was enough to dismiss the case.

Given such sentiments, Mazeppa built churches and richly endow monasteries, to prove their orthodoxy. St. Nicholas Church in Kiev, the Ascension Church in Pereyaslav, 'Holy Gate "in the Kiev Monastery and many other churches built, updated or decorated Mazepa. To this we must add the rich gifts of money and estates of monasteries, including the female Kiev, where the abbess was the mother of Mazepa, Maria Magdalene.
.
. Even in Palestine, sent Mazeppa his gift: the art of a silver plaque-corporal
. And now it is used instead of antimension for worship in the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. On the blackboard that is engraved as follows: 'Noble begging his mercy Pan John Mazepa, Hetman of Russia ". Apparently, he called himself Mazeppa 'hetman Russia ". Presumably, he is better known as a name than his admirers - the separatists, who was posthumously renamed it 'Ukrainian Hetman.

But even all this did not arouse people's sympathy and trust in Mazeppa. For the people, he always remained a stranger, 'Pan' and 'Pole' and when he tried to lean on the people in the transition to the Swedes - the people behind him did not go.
.
. Popular discontent has repeatedly openly manifested during the reign of Mazeppa, but he always managed to come out victorious, often resorting to Russian troops.

. Opponents Mazepa
.
. At the beginning of Mazepa's reign came to him from the danger had passed to Poland Pravoberezh'ya
. New Polish king, Jan Sobieski, wanting to use the Cossacks in their wars, allowed the formation of several Cossack regiments and approved at the rank of the hetman of the Cossacks of the right bank, selected Mr.. Nemiroff, Miguli. Miguli not satisfied with the protection of the Polish borders from the Turks and Tatars, and entered into relations with the Cossacks, intending to use them to Distribute its power and on the left bank. Mazeppa Miguli intercepted a messenger with a letter to the leader Grigory Sahaydachny, . denounced everything in Moscow, . is immediately sent to the borders of the camp and the army predupridila thus the possibility of joint intervention with the Cossacks Miguli, . which, . was soon killed in a battle with the Tartars.,
.
. In 1692, Mr.
. Mazepa fled from his pen-Petrik, first in the Zaporozhye, and then to the Tatars, and began to produce and distribute generalists with a call for the overthrow of the Hetman's authority and elders, "became the Polish gentry and giving orders". Generalists, these were not little success among the peasants and Cossacks nisshego and triggered an undercurrent of ferment, with whom Mazeppa struggled through severe repression. With the help of the Cossacks and Tatars detachment, Petrik invaded southern regiments (Poltava and Mirgorodskogo), but was bloodily repulsed troops loyal to the Mazepa. Four years troubled Petrik Mazepa, intriguing against him in the camp and among the Tatars and attacked dominion Mazeppa area. Only in February 1696. This threat to the Mazepa was finally eliminated. Crimean Tatar Khan on Belgorod and Petrich suddenly burst into the Poltava and Mirgorodskii shelves and only the joint efforts of the colonels of regiments - the Apostle and Borukhovich, . Mazepa's Cossacks and Russian troops Sheremetieva, . they were defeated and almost totally slaughtered or drowned in the Vorskla and in the Dnieper,
. Killed at the same time, and Petrik, zarublenny Cossack Vechorko.
.
. Do not have time to deal with Pyetrykaw Mazeppa, . both the right bank appeared to him a new trouble: to replace the dead Hetman Hetman Miguli Samus and his associate, Colonel Fastovsky Paliy their successful actions against the Tatars and the protection of populations from pyulsko Catholic persecution gained extraordinary popularity not only on the right, . but also, . Dependency Mazeppa, . Levoberezhie,
. Especially Paliy, which, the first popular rumor made the legendary hero.

Eliminate Paly armed force was not so easy. Mazeppa used for this accusation, and, as a result of long and thin plot, he managed to achieve what Paly (as a native Mr. Borzna on the left side) found himself in 1705 in exile in Siberia.

. Friendship with Peter
.
. So, well and cleverly leaving all the difficulties, consistently stressing its commitment to Russia, Mazeppa rules left bank, taking part in the campaigns undertaken by Peter, as in the south and west and the Baltic
. Mazepa Peter showered with gifts and awards, gave him a hereditary possession of the whole parish in Great Russia, and when the established order of Andrew Primordial, she received the Order of Mazeppa before Peter himself.
.
. In addition Peter has repeatedly rewarded Mazepa money, sable, satin, velvet, brocade, jewels (which kept detailed lists of the Moscow archives Malorossiyskoy College)
. And besides sending him to the palace of stock wine and other products. In case? 36 of 1699 lists sent Mazeppa products: two casks of Rhenish wine, 10 buckets of peanut butter, 500 lemons, vinegar barrel Novgorod, a large white sturgeon and twenty small, ten salmon, one hundred sterlets. All of it was sent on a regular basis every year until the betrayal Mazepa.
.
. So it went, no darkened, friendship and trust Peter to Mazeppa and faithful service to the Mazepa Peter the appearance in the north-eastern Europe, Charles XII and his brilliant victories over all opponents.

. Bet on Karl XII
.
. When Charles XII intervened in Polish affairs, which was zaintresovana Russia, before Mazepa an opportunity to participate in the political game, hoping to win for themselves a more independent position
. Despite all the endearing himself to Peter, . Mazeppa always felt a steep will and firm hand of Peter, . that would fundamentally thwarted any willfulness, . so common in the Polish gentry matatskih circles, . where Mazeppa received their political education, . while at the court of the king.,
.
. Allegations separative Ukrainian historians, that Mazeppa, changing Russia, did it for the good of Ukraine, for which they extol him and, without proof, and will not hold
. None of the files never kept any documents to substantiate the claim. But, . knowing the life and work of Mazeppa, . can be argued, . what, . He received the opportunity to dispose of discretion, . without constraining the heavy hand Peter, . Left bank of the population would quickly saw in his Polish social order with his despotism 'pans' and complete lawlessness "flakes",
. Must assume that people will instinctively, unconsciously felt, and therefore belonged to the Mazepa guarded suspicion and hostility that he recognizes himself Grushevskii.
.
. With the growth of military successes of Karl XII-th, grew stronger and plans Mazepi do it bet and win as a result of the inevitable deadly clashes between Russia and Sweden
. Mazeppa realized that the prevailing party will dictate its will and wanted to play the game so as to be in the camp of the winner.
.
. In Poland at the time was a bitter struggle between the two contenders for the throne: Augustus of Saxony, with yuznikom Peter and Stanslavom LeszczyеLski, an ally of Charles
. With the victories of Charles and his invasion of Poland grew, and the chances Leszczynski, and the war is gradually approaching the borders of the left bank. Mazeppa establishes contact with potential winners. In the strictest secrecy, he leads negotiations with Stanislaw Leszczynski, . which promises to make Mazepa hereditary 'Russian prince, and his power to bring to all of Ukraine-Rus, . which would, . like the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, . part of the Polish Rzeczpospolita,
. There was even already made for the prince's coat of arms Mazepa, whose image leads Grushevskii in his 'History of Ukraine ", thus confirming the existence of a plan to establish a' Russian principalities.
.
. Dealings with Russia's enemies Mazeppa led first through the princess Dulskuyu, which, according to legend, he had an affair during one of his campaign (with Peter) in Poland
. Later there Zalensky Jesuit, rector of the Jesuit College in Vinnitsa. He settles the estate Parasyuchka about Bakhmach, not far from Baturin and has frequent secret meetings with Mazepa in one of its suburban houses under Baturin.
.
. When Charles XII close to the borders of Ukraine, Mazepa comes with him to communicate directly, preferring to deal with the "master" and not with his foot - LeszczyеLski.
.
. Mazeppa promises to take the side of Charles a 20-strong army, as soon as he crosses the border and will appear on subject Mazeppa area
. All he talks is so secret that nothing about them do not even know most of his staff. Only some of them suspected something questionable in the actions of Mazepa and Chief Justice Kochubei and Poltava Colonel Iskra sent Peter denunciation. Denunciation that survived. He has 26 points, but none of them has not been confirmed what any evidence and the reading gives the impression to be charged, but unsubstantiated libel. As such, he was welcomed by Peter and Golkovkinym and Shafirov that Peter instructed to make inquiry. Golovkin and Shafar were personal friends of Mazeppa, but they also knew that Kochubey nurtures a grudge against Mazepa, because he had seduced in love with him the daughter Matrona (Motru) and not married her, what is vitally insulted Kochubey. As a result, informants were given Mazeppa and executed them, and all their property confiscated.
.
. At this time (1707-the years) Peter intensively preparing for a clash with Karl, and demanded the same from Mazeppa and urged him to prepare and lead the army.
.
. Not wanting to prematurely reveal its plans, . Mazeppa himself sick, . writes Chronicle, . 'stuck poultices, . plastered with ointments and painfully moaned ", . and Peter wrote about it, . that as soon as she recovered, . it immediately to march, . least, . as wrote Mazeppa, . 'in the campaign this and my heart to leave my mortal body ",
. Worried disease your pet, Peter constantly inquired about his health and even sent him a doctor, an Italian. But Mazeppa did not improve. As the dying, he asked the Metropolitan to join him and perform last rites over him, as Peter had been notified immediately.

It lasted over a year this "disease" Mazeppa, which enabled him to postpone an open rupture with Peter. At the same time "disease" that prevented Mazeppa concentrate troops, . For Peter, . without waiting for the recovery Mazepa, . demanded the immediate despatch of individual sections of 2-3 thousand Cossacks for joint action with the units of Russian troops, . and Mazeppa, . clear, . could not fulfill the orders of Peter, . not to arouse his suspicions.,
.
. As a result, the fall of 1708, when Charles took Mogilev and crossed the Dnieper, in Mazeppa in Baturin was only about 5 thousand troops, mostly not registered Cossacks, and the wage 'Kompaneets' and' Serdyukov.

. Go to Charles XII
.
. To leave behind strong garrison in Baturin, Mazeppa with a group of elders and a detachment of about 3-4x of thousands of troops (there is no exact data), went through Mr.
. Korop meet Charles, who had already entered the Starodubskaya Regiment and had an apartment in the village of Gorki, south of Novgorod-Seversky. Delay and delay was impossible, because the North was approaching with a large group of Menshikov and if he managed to catch more Mazepa in Baturin, the whole plan would have been lost Mazepa. 'Even in a campaign of Baturin in Gorki, to Karl, the army Mazepa did not know where and why it leads Mazeppa, assuming that they are against the Swedes ". - As told to Peter deserted the Swedes companionable Colonel Ignatius Galagan.
.
. Learning of treason Mazepa, . Peter immediately took decisive action: Menshikov ordered to take Baturin, . turned to the sergeant and the entire population with a manifesto, . calling not go for Mazepa, . and those who went - back, called a sergeant in the remote to select a new Hetman.,
.
. Menshikov November 3, took Baturin attack, severely dealt with all of its inhabitants, and the city burned and destroyed
. Kamensky Bantysh in his' History of Little Russia "(h. III, page. 98) says that Menshikov 'with an edge of the sword all the local inhabitants, not excluding infants.
.
. Baturin commandant Colonel Chechel was wounded, captured and subsequently executed as a traitor, in Glukhov, and artillery chief Kenigsek (Prussian) was killed
. Huge stocks of food and military supplies got to the winners. Only a small number of defenders Baturin managed to escape and hide in the woods. According to legend, contributed to the successful storming Baturin Colonel Nose, who pointed Menshikov secret passages in Baturin.

Population Mazepa is not supported and some elders have started to arrive to Peter with the expression of loyalty. One of the first was - Colonel Ivan Skoropadsky Starodub, Chernigov - Polubotok and many other. Some of the colonels, for instance, Galagan, apostle and others, was initially recycled for Mazepa, back to Peter, who were not only not punished, but still generous and rewarding.

. Election of a new hetman
.
. On November 6 in Glukhov was solemnly elected hetman Starodubye Colonel Ivan Skoropadsky
. In this case, who was in Glukhov Peter, was signed and made public the royal gramata, confirming the 'preservation of the liberties and advantages of Little Russia. "
.
. And on November 12, when in a lonely, arrived in Kiev, Metropolitan Joseph Krokovsky and gathered the archbishops and bishops, in a special ceremony was devoted to eternal damnation Mazepa and his assistants
. This is how this ceremony "History Russov": 'The emperor, with the whole retinue listened to the cathedral, Trinity Church of the Divine Liturgy and prayer, . on okochanii which, . gathered in Glukhov's primary malarossiyskoe clergy betrayed eternal damnation Mazepa and his followers,
. In the area bore stuffed scarecrow Mazepa. Was read the verdict on the crime and the execution of his, . broken by Prince Menshikov and Count Golovkin complained to him on gramaty Hetman я¬я-я¦п¦, . rank of Privy Councilor and the Order of St. Andrew and charged with stuffed ribbon,
. Then the executioner threw these things image of a traitor, all signified trampled underfoot, and the executioner pulled the rope stuffed in the streets and squares of the city to the place of execution, where he hung. "
.
. Mazeppa at this time was on the march with the Swedish army, which moved to the towns of Romney, and Gadyach for winter quarters, where the Swedes Mazepa was previously harvested sales condi-volstvie and built fortifications.
.
. Not being sure of the victory of Charles and knowing the mood and behavior of the people, Mazepa tried to enter through the Colonel of the Apostle in touch with Peter, promising to help him defeat and even the capture of Charles
. Peter was encouraged by Mazepa and even promised to return to the previous situation, but the proposal did not believe Mazepa and continued intensively to prepare for a decisive confrontation with Karl. In addition, he appointed a special cash reward for the capture of Swedes: two thousand rubles for the general, a thousand for the colonel, five rubles for a soldier and three rubles for the dead Swede. Many of the Cossacks and peasants caught the Swedes, especially when they are small units drifted to search for forage. Survived quite a few receipts for payment for this award, but small. Apparently, no general or colonel izlovlen was not.
.
. So passed the winter of 1708-th year, especially without major clashes, except the taking of Swedes Veprik town, which was forced to surrender the Russian detachment of a thousand men
. The Swedes, in general, were in Romney, and Gadyach, and the Russian bid was in Lebedin, Russian forces have grown due to influx reinforcements and supplies power as Swedes melted. 16 thousandth unit of General Lewenhaupt, . walking to the Charles with reinforcements and large transports supplies was defeated and destroyed in the village of Forest (Belarus), and Charles had to rely only on our own strength but to come with Mazapoy 3-4 thousand Cossacks.,
.
. By May 1709, after long persuasion, negotiation, and promises, Mazeppa and Charles Delete
. axis persuade the Cossacks to speak at the side of the Swedes and they led Koshevogo Gordienko moved to help Charles.

. Ruin camp
.
. Hearing this, Peter lightning speed, mixed Russian-Cossack detachment zavhatil camp and destroyed it to the ground
. This expedition was commanded by Colonel: Galagan (himself a former Cossack) and Yakovlev. Escaped the Cossacks fled into Turkish territory and established a new whip on the site of present city Alyosha.

Poltava

Charles also moved south to join up with the Dnieper Cossacks and the way he wanted to take Poltava. When he failed to immediately, . He began (early May), the siege of the city, . lasted one and a half months without success and ended with the famous battle of Poltava (June 27) came to the rescue with the troops of Peter, . which consisted, . as a Russian, . and from the faithful Cossack regiments, . which was and, . returned from exile, . Colonel Paly.,
.
. The Swedes beat routed
. Charles XII and Mazepa with the remnants of the troops fled to the west to the Dnieper, threw all their wagons and artillery. But they caught Perevolochna Menshikov and Cossacks, and forced all the remaining troops to surrender. Saved only by Carl and Mazeppa, crossed the Dnieper first, but a small Swedish-Cossack detachment. Then they fled into the territory of Turkey, in Bender, where he stayed for a long time.

Death Mazepa

Here Mazepa soon died and was ceremoniously buried in a nearby monastery. 'His coffin, placed on the sleigh, drove 6 pairs of white horses, and the coffin were grieved his associates "- describes his funeral' Chronicle."


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  • bourgeois for Mazepa, Ivan Stepanovich KOLEDINSKY
  • Yes ... not for nothing they say that the story in Russia is under strict censorship! Probably the Holodomor in Ukraine nebylo and communists were greeted with bread and salt ... all this we thank God passed!
  • Aleksi for Mazepa, Ivan Stepanovich KOLEDINSKY
  • Mazeppa Polish-Ukrainian sly fox, lick your heels to all those who gave him power and betraying not only Peter, but all those who he served. Who in the link, someone far, the main thing to be able to present the powerful. And censorship is nothing to do with. and if it does not pull to married Polish women, the husband of one of them threw him naked on a horse from Poland Batog it to old age would be at the court of the King of Poland was running an errand and wove palace intrigues
  • Vasya for Mazepa, Ivan Stepanovich KOLEDINSKY
  • Jackass Ukrainians! Mazepa want to make a hero of th!
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