Lise Meitner (Meitner Lise)( Austrian physicist and radiochemist.)
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Biography Lise Meitner (Meitner Lise)
Born Nov. 7, 1878 in Vienna, in the family of a prosperous lawyer. Lisa soon confronted with prejudice against women - it failed to complete high school and university prepared her home teachers. Later she was confronted with blatant anti-Semitism. Meitner successfully graduated from the University of Vienna, where one of her teachers was Boltzmann. In 1906 she defended her doctoral thesis on the calculations of thermal conductivity of inhomogeneous bodies. Over 541 years of existence of the university, only 14 women managed to protect him in his doctoral dissertation, and none of them was devoted to the physics. In 1907, started its joint work with O. Hahn for the Exploration of radioactivity, and in 1909 they developed a method for isolating the products a-decay. In 1912 Meitner became the assistant to Max Planck Institute for Theoretical Physics, and continues on its scientific reputation affected by the fact that she is a woman. Thus, her lecture on space issues, the ad was called 'cosmetic problems of physics'. During the First World War, Meitner worked radiologist at the hospital, unaware that the other side of the front line, too, the radiologist is working her idol and fellow - French Maria Sklodowska-Curie.
In 1917 Meitner returned to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, where until 1938 headed the department. In 1918, together with Hahn opened a new radioactive element protactinium (about this discovery Gan announced only after the Second World War), and then developing methods to study b-spectra. Since 1922 he teaches at the University of Berlin, in 1926 became professor. In 1922-1924, Hahn and Meitner formulated the idea of discrete energy states of nuclei, and in 1932 one of the first investigated the nuclear reactions induced by neutron irradiation.
In 1933, with the coming to power of Hitler, many German-Jewish scientists fled Germany, but Meitner, Hahn and Strassmann which procured the title of 'valuable Jew', remained in Germany until 1938. Literally in the last minute, she moved to Denmark, and from there to Sweden, where she was destined to live 24 пЁп+п¦п¦. In 1938-1946 she worked at the Nobel Institute, in 1948-1960 - at the Higher Technical School in Stockholm. In 1939 Meitner, together with O. Frisch could explain the results of Hahn and Shtrassamana - the formation of barium by bombarding uranium with neutrons: the uranium nucleus splits into two 'fragments' - nuclei of atoms of barium and krypton - with the release of energy. It was a new type of splitting of the atom and predicted the existence of a nuclear chain reaction.
In 1946, Hahn received the Nobel Prize in Physics. Meitner Prize does not receive, although many prominent physicists of the time believed that she could claim her with the same right as the Gang. However, the recognition comes to Meitner. After the war, it is awarded the City of Vienna Prize in science, she received the Gold Medal of the Max Planck Prize Ghana and the Fermi.
In 1960 Meitner moved to the UK and October 27, 1968, died in Cambridge on the eve of its 90 th anniversary.