MAC-Lц+en Marshall (McLuhan Herbert Marshall)( Canadian scholar, researcher of psychological and social impact of language and communication media.)
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Biography MAC-Lц+en Marshall (McLuhan Herbert Marshall)
Born in Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) July 21, 1911. He studied at the University of Manitoba (Winnipeg, . Canada) (1928-1934) and Cambridge University (England) (1934-1936), . which in 1943 received his Ph.D. in Rhetoric, . Place a thesis by Thomas Nash in the book culture of his time (The Place of Thomas Nash in the Learning of his Time),
. Specializes in the literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, taught at several American and Canadian universities. From 1948 he taught at the Catholic College of St.. Michael at the University of Toronto (since 1952 a professor), where in 1963 headed the Center for the Study of Culture and Technology. In 1973 he was appointed adviser to the Pontifical Commission for Public Communications. Mc Lц+en died in Toronto on Dec. 31, 1980.
The most Mac-Lц+en known for his studies of ways of influencing various communication media (SMC) and new technologies on the formation of human perception and society. By Mac-Lц+en, . the emergence of writing, . in modern times the establishment of a printing press by Gutenberg led, . that man began to experience things like the following one after another (like the letters in the text), . linearly and consistently, . way, . characteristic of visual perception, . Unlike auditory,
. Instead of 'tribal' man, a resident of the village, a man came 'printing and industrial'. In cultures 'Gutenberg galaxy' line number (logic, assembly koveyer, a chain of command) have become the primary model for organizations of any application of forces
. The emergence of electric and electronic QMS (Telegraph, . Phone, . Radio, . television) has transformed the modern world in a new, . 'global village', . in which all, . what happens, . immediately - due to almost instantaneous spread of electrical or radio signal - is known to all its inhabitants, . and each new event interfaces with other,
. According to Mac-Lц+en, electronic QMS promote decentralization of the world society, and the maximum differences on all issues, which leads to an increase in instability and a potential explosion of the modern world. At sunset 'book era' need to part with the traditional forms of thinking and ways of social, political and economic organization. To control this world requires engineering, process management techniques, such as those used in the management of modern economies
. In the communicative environment of the new 'e-society', the emergence of which McLuhan refers to the mid 1950's, the center of gravity moves from the content of communicative messages (message) to the actual means of transmission (medium) of the communication
. Important information is not, as a way to transfer. This idea was a lover of aphorisms Mc Lц+en expressed in the paradoxical formula of 'the medium is the message', ie. messages that means of communication, is itself a means of. In 1967, Mac-Lц+en published a book of aphorisms, entitled, punning reinterpreted this formula and directly called the impact on people QMS 'massage'. The book The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects sold a total circulation of 1 million copies
. By media - means of communication, . communication - Mac-Lц+en considers a variety of things, . items, . guns, . phenomena (clothing, . car, . currency, . Advertising, . electric light, etc.), . word, . everything, . that becomes an extension of, . extension of rights (as a stick or a gun were a continuation of the hand of man),
. They are the opposite effect on humans (the so, . creation of mechanical watches has changed the idea of the nature of time - discrete linear time has come to replace the continuous-cyclic) is addressed in books of interpersonal communication (Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, . 1964),
. It examines the form (grammar) of the various means of communication, the transition from one form to another, and social consequences of such transitions
. Particular attention is paid Lц+en Mac-TV, . in which the mosaic of the filing of information and rapid change 'Image' destroy the usual logic of linearly coherent perception of reality, . forcing the viewer instantly linked fractional mosaic of images into some coherent picture,
. Among other works of Mak-Lц+en - the book The Mechanical Bride (The Mechanical Bride, . 1951), . in which he showed, . under the influence of technology products packaging and marketing groups were formed folklore of the industrial age; Item extinction (Through the Vanishing Point, . 1968, . co), . Inner Landscape: Marshall Mc Lц+en - literary critic (The Interior Landscape: The Literary Criticism of Marshall McLuhan, . 1969), . From cliche to archetype (From Clich to Archetype, . 1970, . co),
Critics and admirers of the Canadian theorist of the information society gives him all sorts of epithets: from 'clown', 'utopian' to 'oracle of the electronic age', 'the prophet' and 'guru' QMS 'new Rousseau'. He has been compared with Darwin, Einstein and Freud.
Eden Mc Lц+en, widely spread in the 1960's, experienced a renaissance in the 1990's in connection with the proliferation of personal computers and the emergence of 'World Wide Web'.