McAuley, Thomas Babington (Macaulay Thomas Babington)( English essayist, historian and statesman.)
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Biography McAuley, Thomas Babington (Macaulay Thomas Babington)
Born October 25, 1800 in Rotli-Temple (Leicestershire). His father, Zachary Macaulay, was a businessman, an opponent of slavery and the editor of 'Christian reviews' ( 'Christian Observer'). Macaulay was educated at two small private schools. He graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, . which won literary awards for poetry in 1819 and Pompeii evening in 1821, and in 1824 became a member of the Board of Trinity College, and began to receive 300 pounds a year - a salary, . in which it is needed after the collapse of his father's company,
. Admitted to the bar, but have not started a legal practice, he wrote to literary journals and supported Abolitionist. In August 1825 his sketch of Milton in the 'Edinburgh Review' has received wide recognition for spirited, energetic, exciting style, which Macaulay continue to improve, and which has influenced English prose. In 1830 he was elected to Parliament from the 'pocket borough' Kalna. Vigorously fought for parliamentary reform. The strength and eloquence of his speeches have won universal admiration, contributed to the adoption of the Bill on the reform of 1832 and made him one of the key figures of the then London Whig Society.
Appointed member, then Secretary of the Control Council for India, in 1832, Macaulay was elected to parliament on the list of the Whigs Leeds. Membership on the board of the college ended in 1831, and now only pay clerk gave him the opportunity to support the family and pay for his father's debts. Nevertheless, at the very time when he was forced to sell their prize-winning medals, Macauley has threatened to resign in response to inadequate government plan to free slaves, the plan was changed, and the resignation is not accepted. In December 1833 he was appointed a member of the Supreme Council of the Viceroy of India, with a salary of 10 000 pounds per year.
Londoner at heart, he was stung by his Indian 'confinement', though now his family was spared the need to. Inheritance of 10 000 pounds, left by his uncle allowed him to three and a half years to leave his post. Thanks to him, the English language has become essential in the system of Indian education, in addition, he single-handedly wrote the draft of the Indian Penal Code, which became law in 1860.
On returning to London in 1838, Macaulay was elected to Parliament from Edinburgh in 1839, was defense minister in the government Melborna until 1841. When the Whigs regained power in 1846, Macaulay became chief treasurer. After the failure of the elections in 1847 was elected to the House of Commons from Edinburgh in July 1852, although not an official candidate. At this time he had already suffered from heart problems from which never fully recovered. Macaulay retired in 1856, and next year he was given the title of Baron Rotli.
In these years Macauley increasingly inclined to literary pursuits labor. In 1838 began working on the history of Britain (History of England from the Revolution of 1688) and continued to write for the 'Edinburgh Review', which in total have been published 27 of his essays in 1825-1844. Fame were also songs of Ancient Rome (Lays of Ancient Rome, 1842) and the second edition of the Edinburgh Critical and historical essays (Critical and Historical Essays, 1843). The first two volumes of History of England, which was published in 1848, won the extraordinary success. In 1849 Macaulay was elected to the honorary position of Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow. In 1854 he published a collection of Speeches (Speeches), and in 1855 the third and fourth volumes of History. The fifth volume, left unfinished, was published posthumously in 1861. Macaulay died in London on December 28, 1859.