Born July 7, 1860 in Kalishte (Czech Republic), the second of 14 children in the family of Mary Hermann and Bernhard Mahler
, a Jewish distiller. Shortly after the birth of Gustav
's family moved to a small industrial town of Jihlava - an island of German culture in South Moravia (now Czech Republic).
showed great musical talent and studied with local teachers. Then his father took him to Vienna. At the age of 15 years, Mahler
entered the Vienna Conservatory, where he studied with Yu Epstein (piano), R. Fuchs (harmony) and F. Crenna (composition). He also listened to lectures on the history of music and philosophy at the University of Vienna and met with then at the University of Bruckner. The first significant essay Mahler
, . cantata lament (Das klagende Lied, . 1880), . not received conservatory Beethoven Prize, . then disappointed the author decided to devote himself to the conductor's work - first in a small operetta theater at Linz (May-June 1880), . then in Ljubljana (Slovenia, . 1881-1882), . Olomouc (Moravia, . 1883) and Kassel (Germany, . 1883-1885),
. At the age of 25 years, Mahler
was invited by the conductor of the Prague opera, where a great success staged operas of Mozart and Wagner and performed Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. However, the conflict with the chief conductor, A. Seidl, Mahler
was forced to leave Vienna and from 1886 to 1888 served as assistant conductor A. Nikisch in Leipzig Opera. Unrequited love, experienced by a musician at that time, gave birth to two major works - vocal-symphonic cycle Songs of a Wayfarer (Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 1883) and the First Symphony (1888).
Average period. Following the triumphant success in Leipzig premiere of complete operas K. Weber Three Pinto (Die drei Pintos), Mahler
performed it in 1888 for a few more times in theaters in Germany and Austria. Those triumphs, however, did not allow personal problems conductor. After a quarrel with Nikishev he left Leipzig and became director of the Royal Opera House in Budapest. Here he met the Hungarian premiere of Das Rheingold and Valkyrie Wagner, put one of the first veristskih operas Rusticana Mascagni. His interpretation of Don Giovanni by Mozart evoked enthusiastic response of Johannes Brahms.
In 1891, Mahler
had to leave Budapest, as the new director of the Royal Theater was unwilling to cooperate with foreign conductors. By this time, Mahler
had already composed three books of songs with piano accompaniment; nine songs to texts of German folk poetry anthology Magic Horn boy (Des Knaben Wunderhorn) were self-titled song cycle. Following locations Mahler
became the City Opera in Hamburg, where he served as the first conductor (1891-1897). Now in his possession was first-rate ensemble of singers, and he was able to communicate with the greatest musicians of his time. In the role of protector of Mahler
made H.fon Buelow, who before his death (1894) gave Mahler
leadership Hamburg subscription concerts. In Hamburg during Mahler
finished the orchestral Editor Magic Horn boy, Second and Third Symphonies
. In Hamburg, Mahler
experienced infatuation Anna von Mildenburg - singer (dramatic soprano) from Vienna, at the same time tying it to his longstanding friendship with the pianist Natalie Bauer-Lechner: they spent months of summer holiday together, . and Natalie kept a diary, . One of the most reliable sources of information about the life and mindset of Mahler
. In 1897 he converted to Catholicism, one of the reasons for treatment was the desire to get a place in the director and conductor of the Court Opera in Vienna. Ten years, that Mahler
held this post, many musicologists consider the golden age of the Vienna Opera: conductor selected and trained group of magnificent artists, preferring that the singers-actors wizards Belcanto. Art fanaticism Mahler
, . his stubborn nature, . disregard some performing traditions, . desire to pursue a sensible policy repertoire, . as well as the unusual pace, . he chose, . and tough comments, . he did during the rehearsals, . Mahler
created a lot of enemies in Vienna - the city, . where music was seen as an object of pleasure rather, . than sacrificial service,
. In 1903, Mahler
was invited to the theater a new employee - the Viennese artist A. Roller, together they created a number of productions, which used a new style and technique, established at the turn of the century in the European theater arts. The major achievements in this regard have Tristan and Isolde (1903), Fidelio (1904), Das Rheingold and Don Juan (1905), as well as the cycle of Mozart's best operas, prepared in 1906 for the 150-th anniversary of the composer.
In 1901, Mahler
married Alma Schindler, the daughter of the famous Viennese landscape painter. Alma Mahler
was eighteen years younger than her husband studied music and even tried to write, in general, felt like a creative nature and is not seeking diligently perform the duties as hostess, mother and wife, as like Mahler
. But thanks to Alma extended circle of friends of the composer: in particular, he became close friends with the playwright G. Hauptmann and composers Alexander von Zemlinsky and Schoenberg A.. In my own little 'house composer', . hidden in the woods on the shore of Lake WцTrthersee, . Mahler
graduated from the Fourth Symphony and created four symphonies, . and the second song cycle on poems from the Magic Horn boy (Seven songs of recent years, . Sieben Lieder aus letzter Zeit) and tragic song cycle based on poems by Rц+ckert songs about dead children (Kindertotenlieder),
By 1902 the activities of composer Gustav Mahler
is widely accepted, largely thanks to the support of Richard Strauss, who gave the first complete performance of the Third Symphony, which took a big success. In addition, Strauss included the second and sixth symphonies, and Mahler
songs in the program of the annual festival of music he headed Vsegermanskogo Union. Mahler
were frequently invited to conduct his own works, and this led to conflict with the administration of the composer's Vienna Opera, positing that Mahler
neglects its duties of artistic director.
. Recent years