Malinovsky, Rodion Yakovlevich( Soviet military leader. Marshal of the Soviet Union (1944).)
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Biography Malinovsky, Rodion Yakovlevich
Born on 11 (22) November 1898 in Odessa. Illegitimate son of a cook. Educated in the school junior officers' quarters (1920) and the Frunze Military Academy (1930). In 1911-1914 worked as a laborer, then a student clerk haberdashery shop in Odessa. In 1914 he joined the army as a volunteer. Member of the First World War, Corporal, for the differences in the battles was awarded the George Cross 4-th degree. In 1916 in the Russian expeditionary corps was sent to France. After the dissolution case in December 1917 - August 1919 he served in the 1 st Foreign Regiment of the Moroccan Division.
In November 1919 he returned to Russia and joined the Red Army. He fought in Siberia, the platoon commander 27 Infantry Division of the Eastern Front. In 1920-1927 the head of machine-gun team Regiment, the assistant battalion commander, then commander of Battalion 81 th Infantry Division. In 1926 joined the Communist Party (b). Since 1930, Chief of Staff Cavalry Regiment, Chief of Staff, District. In 1935-1936 Chief of Staff of the 3rd Cavalry Corps, commanded by Zhukov, then in 1936 the assistant inspector of army cavalry inspection staff of the Belarusian Military District. In 1937 was sent as a military adviser to Spain, took part in military operations, coordinating the actions of the Soviet 'volunteers'.
Time after return, and Spain - the most dark in the biography of Malinowski. It is unclear where he was and what he did during the year. We only know that in the period of mass repressions in 1937-1938 to Malinowski collected materials as the party's military-fascist conspiracy in the Red Army, but the cause has not been given a course.
From 1939 to the Frunze Military Academy. March 1941 the commander of 48 Infantry Corps, stationed in the Odessa.
Commander that Malinowski's work was clearly shown during the Great Patriotic War. At the head of the 48 th Infantry Corps, he took part in heavy fighting on the Soviet border on the Prut River. In August 1941 he was appointed commander of the 6 th Army. From December 1941 to July 1942 commanded the Southern Front (dismissed for the surrender of the Germans in Rostov on Don), from August to October 1942 - 66 th Army, battled north of Stalingrad. In October-November 1942 the Deputy Commander of the Voronezh Front. During this period, Malinowski has established close relations with Nikita Khrushchev, who was a member of the Military Council of the Front. Since November 1942 in command of 2 Guards Army, . which in December in conjunction with a 5-second shock, and 51-th army halted and then defeated the troops of Army Group 'Don' Manstein, . attempting to relieve encircled at Stalingrad group of German troops,
Since February 1943 - Commander of the South, and in March the South-Western (later renamed the 3rd Ukrainian) front, the troops who liberated Donbass and right-bank Ukraine. Under his leadership, has been prepared and successfully carried out the operation Zaporizhzhya, . in which Soviet troops stormed a sudden nocturnal important node defense - Zaporozhye, . that had a great influence on the defeat of Melitopol group of enemy troops and helped to isolate the fascists in the Crimea,
. Subsequently troops 3rd Ukrainian Front, together with the neighboring 2-First Ukrainian Front expanded their bridgehead in the Dnieper bend. Then, in collaboration with the forces of 4-th Ukrainian Front had successfully Nikopol-Krivoy Rog Operation. The spring of 1944 troops of the 3rd Ukrainian spent Bereznegovato-Snigirevskaya and Odessa operations: crossed the Southern Bug, released Mykolaiv and Odessa.
Since May 1944 Malinowski was appointed commander of the 2-th Ukrainian Front. In August 1944, troops of the front with the 3 rd Ukrainian Front (commanded by F. Tolbukhin) was secretly prepared and successfully implemented one of the largest operations of the Great Patriotic War - Iasi-Kishinev operation. The result was the defeat of the main forces of the enemy armies 'South Ukraine', . release of Moldova and the exit of Soviet troops on the Romanian-Hungarian and the Bulgarian-Yugoslav border, . that radically changed the military-political situation in the south wing of the Soviet -,
. In October 1944 the troops of 2 First Ukrainian Front, commanded by Malinowski Debrecen successfully conducted the operation, during which suffered a serious defeat the armies of the group 'South', the enemy forces were expelled from Transylvania. Troops 2-th Ukrainian Front occupied an advantageous position to advance on Budapest and assisted 4-th Ukrainian Front to overcome the Carpathians and the liberation of the Transcarpathian Ukraine. Following the operation, troops of the front Debrecen Malinowski in conjunction with the 3 rd Ukrainian Front carried out the operation Budapest (October 1944 - February 1945), . as a result of which was eliminated enemy force and was released in Budapest,
. At the final stage of the war the troops 2 of the First Ukrainian Front, together with troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front, successfully conducted the Vienna operation (March-April 1945), . during which drove the enemy of Western Hungary, . released a large part of Czechoslovakia, . eastern regions of Austria and its capital - Vienna,
In July - October 1945 Malinovsky commanded the Trans-Baikal Front, whose troops have caused major blow to the Japanese Kwantung Army.
In 1945-1947 Commander Transbaikalian-Amur Military District. Since 1947, Chief of the troops in the Far East. Since 1952 a candidate member, since 1956 member of the CPSU Central Committee. In 1953-1956 Commander of the Far Eastern Military District. Since March 1956 Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR and the Commander of Land Forces.
One of the active participants Zhukov ouster from the leadership of the armed forces of the country. At the October (1957) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, which discussed the issue, said, against his immediate superior, sharply revealing and largely unfair question. Replaced Zhukov as Minister of Defense of the USSR. Being in this position, on the one hand, implemented a policy of military strength, the priority development of strategic nuclear forces of strategic deterrence, on the other - comply with the directive of the Party leadership, held a massive reduction in the army. One of the culprits Missile Crisis of 1962.
In 1964, actively supported the participants 'palace coup', the speakers for the displacement of Khrushchev from his post as first secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and its replacement by Leonid Brezhnev. Thereafter, until his death, remained at the head of the Soviet armed forces and enjoyed a noticeable influence in the leadership.
Malinowski died in Moscow on March 31, 1967. Buried in Moscow at the Kremlin wall.